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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2021

Jan 19, 2021

Current Affair 1:
India Innovation Index 2020

Source Link

Introduction: Always read the basics of any index or schemes. It will help you in Mains too.

In this article, we will also see various other parameters with respect to India.

Objective of Index:

 

 

However, in absolute terms, the Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD) has consistently risen over the years, tripling from Rs 39,437.77 crores in 2007-08 to Rs 1,13,825.03 crores in 2017-18, as shown in Figure 2. For the year 2018-19, GERD in India is estimated to be Rs. 1,23,847.70.

Another important aspect of R&D is the number of personnel engaged in the process of research itself.

The India Innovation Index measures innovation inputs through ‘Enablers’ and innovation output as ‘Performance.’

Current Affair 2:
Judicial Restraint

While hearing a petition against tractor rally to be organised on Republic Day by farmers Union, Supreme Court told the Centre that the proposed tractor rally by farmers on Republic Day is a matter of "law and order" and Delhi Police is the first authority to decide who should be allowed to enter the national capital.

Contrasting Arguments on Right to Express Peacefully

The protesting union leaders said that they will go ahead with their tractor parade on January 26 as it “is their constitutional right to take out a rally peacefully” and asserted that they will raise the issue in the tenth round of talks with government on January 20.

Contrastingly, the government wanted the Court to pass an injunction order to restrain farmers from holding rallies to “disrupt” the Republic Day celebrations in Delhi. The government argued that right to express dissent against the farm laws did not include a right to “malign the nation globally”.

Based on these contrasting arguments from both sides, Supreme Court while showing judicial restraint, 1. Did not call off the tractor rally & 2. Also did not allowed centre to interfere. Rather, SC authorized Delhi Police to take a call on the issue.

Judicial Restraint

Judicial Restraint is a theory of judicial interpretation that encourages judges to:

  1. limit the exercise of their own power. It asserts that judges should hesitate to strike down laws unless they are obviously unconstitutional.
  2. not possess any policy-making powers and hence, they should rely upon the legislative intent, stare decisis and strict application of judicial interpretation.
  3. look to the original intent of the writers of the Constitution. (In Judicial activism judges should look beyond the original intent of the framers)

Judicial restraint helps in preserving a balance among the three branches of government, judiciary, executive, and legislative. The judges and the court encourage reviewing an existing law rather than modifying the existing law.

When Judges start thinking they can solve all the problems in society and start performing legislative and executive functions (because the legislature and executive have in their perception failed in their duties), all kinds of problems are bound to arise. Judges can no doubt intervene in some extreme cases, but otherwise they neither have the expertise nor resources to solve major problems in society. Also, such encroachment by the judiciary into the domain of the legislature or executive will almost invariably have a strong reaction from politicians and others.

Past Examples:

  1. SC on Central Vista Project – refrained from giving any orders to stall the project
  2. SC on Article 370 – SC not showing any intent to restrain the Centre from passing any laws against the decision of Centre to abrogate Article 370.
  3. Rafale Deal – The Court did not cancel Rafale deal of India and France as it was a decision involving two countries taken by government of India.
  4. Aadhaar Judgment – Question was raised in SC about passing of Aadhaar Bill as money Bill. However, the SC did not indulge in the constitutionality of passing of Aadhaar Bill as Money Bill.

Current Affair 3:
Climate change will alter the position of the Earth's tropical rain belt

Source Link

 

Future climate change will cause a regionally uneven shifting of the tropical rain belt -- a narrow band of heavy precipitation near the equator -- according to researchers at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions. This development may threaten food security for billions of people.

Tropical Rain Belt

The tropical rain belt is the region around the tropics that receives abundant rainfall. It is largely the manifestation of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone).

During October to March, the tropical rain belt lies in the southern hemisphere of the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean. The northern tropics are dry during this period. Between April and September, the tropical rain belt occurs in the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere goes dry then.

The belt shifts roughly between the equator and the fifteenth parallel north (south) latitude. Near these latitudes one dry and one wet season occurs. On the other hand, there are two wet and two dry seasons in the equator as the belt passes through the equator twice.

Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, or ITCZ, is a belt of low pressure which circles the Earth generally near the equator where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together.

Abundant rain in Tropical Rain Belt

The air in the tropics warm up quickly. The warm air rises up. As the hot air rises, the cold air occupies the vacant spaces. As more and more cold air replaces the warm air, the tropics lose their ability to hold moisture. As a result, the excess moisture turns into rain showers and thunderstorms. This is the main reason for abundant rain in the tropics

Current Affair 4:
Jammu & Kashmir: GI tag for Gucchi Mushroom

 

A geographical indication (GI) tag has been sought for one of the costliest mushrooms in the world that grows in Jammu and Kashmir’s Doda district.

Key Points:

  1. Locally called Gucchi, or Morel, the mushroom, priced at over ?20,000 a kg, is a forest produce collected by local farmers and tribals.
  2. It is said to have medicinal and anti-inflammatory properties.
  3. It is found in the temperate forests.

Due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, the mushrooms are cherished. They are also considered a rich source of calcium, vitamin B and carbohydrates. The GI tag would help local farmers trying to grow them on their farms.

Other GI Products of Jammu and Kashmir:

Kani Shawl                                          

Handicraft     

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir Pashmina               

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir Sozani Craft           

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir Paper Machie        

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Khatamband 

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmiri Hand Knotted Carpet Handicrafts         

Handicraft

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir Saffron                  

Agriculture

Jammu & Kashmir

 

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