Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2021

Jun 03, 2021

Current Affair 1:
Office of Deputy Speaker.


"…although the speaker is elected originally to Parliament as party politician, on being chosen Speaker he drops all party connections and activities. He relinquishes for life all offices in his party; he does not attend any meetings…or conferences."


-Griffith and Ryle, Parliament (1989), pp. 145-146

The aforementioned phrase is equally applicable to the office of the Deputy Speaker.

News here important is:

It is the first time in the history of Indian republic that the office of Deputy speaker has been vacant for almost two years (as of May, 2021).

So, we will cover some important points of Deputy Speaker. No one will cover such so save this topic to bookmarks.

We will try to discuss here: Whether is it mandatory on the part of the House of the People to elect the Deputy Speaker in light of Article 93 of the Constitution of India? OR, Whether the Constitution of India provides any discretion to the House of the People to not to elect any the Deputy Speaker?

First important point is:

Article 93 of the Constitution of India provides that the House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the House shall choose another member to be Speaker or Deputy Speaker.

The elaborate procedure for the election is provided under Rule 8 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha.

  1. It provides that the election of a Deputy Speaker shall be held on such date as the Speaker may fix, and the Secretary-General shall send to every member notice of this date.
  2. It becomes clear here that the first duty to start the procedure for election of Deputy Speaker is casted on the Speaker himself. Until, the Speaker issues the notice, procedure for election, cannot be initiated. However, said Rule 8 also does not make it clear whether it is mandatory to elect the Deputy Speaker.


The Deputy Speaker functions as an ordinary member and has no function to discharge by virtue of his office unless any of the following contingencies happens:

  1. Office of the Speaker failing vacant in any of the ways specified in Article 94- In such a case, the Deputy Speaker performs the duties of the office of the speaker. [Article 95 (1)].

  1. Absence if the Speaker from any sitting of the House. – In this case, he acts as the Speaker so far as that sitting is concerned [Article 95 (2)]. This applies also to temporarily absence of the speaker from parts of a sitting.
  2. While any resolution for the removal of the speaker [Article 94 (c)] is under consideration by the House, the Deputy Speaker shall preside. [Article 96 (1)]."

There is, however, a difference between Cls. (1) and (2) of Article 95. When the Deputy Speaker or other member merely acts as Speaker under Cl. (2), he can only exercise those powers which the speaker possesses as presiding officer of the House, but cannot exercise any power specifically vested in the Speaker by the Constitution, e.g., that of certifying a Bill as Money Bill [Art. 110 (4)]. But such power can be exercised when the Speaker's office is vacant and the Deputy Speaker or other member is performing his duties under Cl. (1).

Few more important questions are:

How long can the Constitutional Office of Deputy Speaker be vacant?

Article 93 of the Constitution of India expressly does not put any rigid limitation in the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker by the House of the People.

However, in order to balance the time limit and discretion of the members of the House of the People in electing the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, they used the expression "as soon as may". The expression "as soon as may be" is not defined under the Indian Constitution.

It is essential to note that there are 16 (Sixteen) provisions in the Indian Constitution which use the expression "as soon as may be" those are Article 22 (1), Article 22 (5), Article 35 (1) (ii), Article 83 (1), Article 89 (2), Article 114 (1), Article 134A, Article 172 (2), Article 178 (1), Article 182, Article 204 (1), Article 243-I, Article 354 (2), Article 359 (3), Article 371 D (6) and Tenth Schedule Para 8 (2). However, the meaning of the expression "as soon as may be" may differ from one Article to another or from one statute to another on the basis of the intention of the framers and the gravity of the situation.

The Hon'ble Supreme Court in the case of Ujagar Singh v. The State of Punjab (AIR 1952 SC 350) interpreting the phrase "as soon as may be" under Article 22 (1) of the Constitution held that:

"The Act does not fix the time within which the grounds should be furnished to the person detained. It merely states that the communication must be "as soon as may be". This means reasonable despatch and what is reasonable must depend on the facts of each case. No arbitrary time limit can be set down.

To conclude:

The Constitution of India does not give any discretion to any authority to not appoint or elect Constitutional office/post, if their appointment or election is mandated by the Constitution. It is to be remembered that all the organs, offices or posts enumerated under the Constitution of India are tied in one golden thread, and they are bound to perform their duty. If it fails, it is not only one authority, office or post which fails but also the complete thread of the Constitution of India.

Current Affair 2:
Quantum Technology

This is bit technical topic, but we have tried to explain you best.

While a standard computer handles digital bits of 0s and 1s, quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits, which can take any value between 0 and 1. And if you entangle the qubits, you can solve problems that classical computers cannot. A future quantum computer could, for example, crack any of today’s common security systems – such as 128-bit AES encryption – in seconds. Even the best supercomputer today would take millions of years to do the same job.

Quantum technology is a class of technology that works by using the principles of quantum mechanics (the physics of sub-atomic particles), including quantum entanglement and quantum superposition.

What is quantum entanglement?

Quantum entanglement is when two atoms are connected, or entangled, despite being separated. If you change the properties of one of them, the other changes instantly.

One possibility this creates is in enhancing the security of communication through quantum protected cipher keys. You can use entangled atoms to detect whether someone has interfered with the transmission of data

For example, you can have two entangled atoms with clockwise and anticlockwise ‘spins’. One atom is sent with the encryption key and if an eavesdropper intercepts the transmission, this causes a change in the ‘spin’ of the atom, affecting the overall quantum state of the system and resulting in the detection of the eavesdropping attempt.

What is quantum superposition?

Quantum superposition is the theory that sub-atomic particles exist in multiple states simultaneously. It’s the crux of the Schrodinger’s Cat thought experiment - a cat, a flask of poison and a radioactive source are in a sealed box. If a Geiger counter detects radioactivity, it shatters the flask, releasing the poison and killing the cat. Since the radioactivity detection is a statistical process, the cat can be both alive and dead while the box is sealed, with the outcome only confirmed when you open the box and observe the cat to be in one state or the other.

The practical application of this mind-bending version of reality is most obvious in quantum computers. While digital computers store data as bits (the ones and zeros of binary), quantum computers use qubits that exist as a one, zero or both at the same time. This superposition state creates a practically infinite range of possibilities, allowing for incredibly fast simultaneous and parallel calculations.

Four domains of quantum technologies:

  1. Quantum communication
  2. Quantum simulation
  3. Quantum computation
  4. Quantum sensing and metrology

Here’s a quick definition of the four main types of quantum technology.

Quantum communication: ostensibly hack-proof

An easy way to think about quantum communication is that it’s about data transmission. Quantum-based channels could help companies share more information with greater security. It’s also the foundation of what’s called the quantum internet.

Quantum communication promises to deliver an additional layer of security. Even if information is intercepted, it would be difficult to impossible to decipher.

Quantum computing: better, faster business applications

While both classical and quantum computing are focused on data processing, the latter represents information as elements called qubits. Among quantum computing’s potential benefits is the ability to help business solve certain problems exponentially faster.

Quantum computing is well-suited for processes that can tax the limits of classical computing, like warehouse management and transportation logistics. Major automotive companies are already testing how quantum can streamline the delivery of multiple products to multiple locations. This is totally different from current navigation systems. With quantum, logistics providers hope to map optimal routes based on current traffic and shipments for every vehicle in real-time ? all at once.”

Quantum sensing: more data powers better outcomes

Medical diagnostics is another area where quantum’s promise shines. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has always been based on quantum technology. The newest advancements in quantum sensing improve accuracy, giving physicians a clearer picture of the patient’s body. The technology extracts information from individual atoms, which is much more precise than just measuring a group of atoms.

Quantum simulation:  boon to R&D

Scientists and researchers in industries like pharmaceuticals and chemistry are looking at quantum simulation to develop better products and save money.

If you want to create a drug with special properties or predict how different components will interact and behave with specific results, quantum simulation could be less expensive and faster. Instead of experimental trial, error and often happenstance discoveries, industries could predict results faster and with greater accuracy. Quantum simulation can model larger quantum systems compared to classical or even supercomputers


Quantum technology is manifested through applications in secure communication, disaster management through better prediction, computing, simulation, chemistry, healthcare, cryptography, imaging among others. Scientists have expanded quantum theory to understand biological phenomena such as smell, consciousness, enzyme catalysis, photosynthesis, avian navigation like that of the Robin, origin of life and effects on coronavirus.

In context of India:

India is currently at the forefront of tapping the second quantum revolution through massive investments in the field. Union Budget 2020-21 proposed to spend ?8,000 crore ($ 1.2 billion) on the newly launched National Mission on Quantum Technologies and Applications (NMQTA) and ? 3660 Crore for National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber Physical Systems (NM-ICPS).

See both missions in brief:

National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS)


Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are new class of engineered systems that integrate computation and physical processes in a dynamic environment. CPS encompasses technology areas of Cybernetics, Mechatronics, Design and Embedded systems, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and many more.  The CPS systems are intelligent, autonomous and efficient and are expected to drive innovation in sectors as diverse as agriculture, water, energy, transportation, infrastructure, security, health and manufacturing. Thus, it is heralded as the next paradigm shift in technology that can exponentially spur growth and development.


To harness the potential of this new wave of technology and make India a leading player in CPS, the Union Cabinet approved the launch of National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS) to be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST) with a total outlay of Rs. 3660 Crore for a period of five years.

Current Affair 3:
Clean Energy Ministerial's (CEM) – Industrial Deep Decarbonization Initiative (IDDI)

Source Link

India along with Govt. of United Kingdom launched new workstream to promote industrial energy efficiency under the Clean Energy Ministerial’s (CEM) – Industrial Deep Decarbonization Initiative (IDDI) co-ordinated by UNIDO, at the 12th Chief Energy Ministerial (CEM). The 12th CEM is ongoing from May 31st and will continue till 6th June 2021. The objective is to infuse green technologies and stimulate demand for low-carbon industrial material.

About Clean Energy Ministerial Industrial Deep Decarbonisation Initiative (IDDI)


The Clean Energy Ministerial Industrial Deep Decarbonisation Initiative (IDDI) is a global coalition of public and private organisations who are working to stimulate demand for low carbon industrial materials. In collaboration with national governments, IDDI works to standardise carbon assessments, establish ambitious public and private sector procurement targets, incentivise investment into low-carbon product development and design industry guidelines.

Coordinated by UNIDO, the IDDI is co-led by the UK and India. Additional members include Germany and Canada. The initiative brings together a strong coalition of related initiatives and organizations including the Mission Possible Platform, the Leadership Group for the Industry Transition, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the World Bank to tackle carbon intensive construction materials such as steel and cement.

About United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability.

The mission of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), as described in the Lima Declaration adopted at the fifteenth session of the UNIDO General Conference in 2013, as well as the Abu Dhabi Declaration adopted at the eighteenth session of the UNIDO General Conference in 2019, is to promote and accelerate inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in Member States.

UNIDO’s mandate is fully recognized in SDG-9, which calls to “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation”. The relevance of ISID, however, applies in greater or lesser extent to all SDGs.


Current Affair 4:
“One Nation One Standard” mission of Bureau of Indian Standards.

Source Link



RDSO (Research Design & Standards Organization) of Indian Railways has become the FIRST Institution to be declared SDO under “One Nation One Standard" mission on BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) which is Institution under Department of Consumer Affairs.


BIS, after reviewing the Standard Making Procedures of RDSO, has granted recognition to RDSO on 24th May 2021 as SDO (Standard Developing Organization). With this recognition, RDSO becomes the first Standard Developing Organization in the country to be granted recognition under the BIS SDO Recognition Scheme. The scope of RDSO’s recognition as SDO, as approved by the Bureau (BIS), is “Standards Developing Organization for products, processes and services for railway transportation sector in India”. The recognition is valid for 3 years and will require renewal after completion of the validity period. 



Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is responsible for harmonious development in standardisation and matters connected therewith, both within the country and at international level. In line with its mandate, Bureau is engaged in the establishment, review and promotion of the Indian Standards, in relation to goods, articles, processes, systems and services.


India is a signatory to WTO-TBT Agreement under which it is to be ensured that the Central Government, State Government and non-Governmental Standardisation Bodies operating within India as well as regional standardisation bodies within India accept and comply to the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards provided in the Annex 3 of the WTO-TBT Agreement.

Technical barriers to trade

The Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement aims to ensure that technical regulations, standards, and conformity assessment procedures are non-discriminatory and do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade. At the same time, it recognises WTO members' right to implement measures to achieve legitimate policy objectives, such as the protection of human health and safety, or protection of the environment. The TBT Agreement strongly encourages members to base their measures on international standards as a means to facilitate trade. Through its transparency provisions, it also aims to create a predictable trading environment.


It may be noted that to attain “Nation One Standard” vision of Govt. of India, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body, has launched a scheme which provides for “Recognition of SDO”. Through this scheme, BIS aims at aggregating and integrating the existing capabilities and dedicated domain specific expertise available with various organizations in the country engaged in standards development in their specific sectors, and enable convergence of all standard development activities in the country resulting in “One National Standard for One Subject”.

The statutory provisions given under Section 10 (2) (c) of the BIS Act 2016 and Section 30 of the BIS Rules, 2018 confer upon BIS, powers to recognize any Standards Developing Organization in India for development of standards.



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