Goaltide Daily Current Affairs

Aug 11, 2019

Current Affair 1:
National Action Plan for Control and Eradication of Glanders in India

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These parts are often neglected by students and then it becomes favorites topic of UPSC exam. Before proceeding let us define two important terms here – Glanders and Equines.

Glanders:  Glanders is a contagious and fatal disease of equines, including horses, donkeys and mules. It is caused by infection due to the bacterium Burkholderia mallei (B. mallei).

Equines: a horse or other member of the horse family

National Action Plan for Control and Eradication of Glanders in India released by the Union Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying on July 26, 2019. Prior to this, guidelines were issued in 2017 but by Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

Important Guidelines

  • According to the new plan, fairs, congregations, shows or any equestrian events would be permitted in a district provided that
  • There has been no case of glanders in the district itself and in the adjoining districts during the past one year and ongoing surveillance is in place.
  • The fair is managed by state veterinary authority / local municipal authority or by any registered society.
  • The organizer of the event would advertise about the regulation and requirements for participation in the fair through print and media in advance.
  • Equines from a notified (affected) area/district/zone which fall within 25 km radius from infection source shall not be permitted to participate in any events organised in a de-notified or glanders-free area/district/zones/states.
  • To become eligible for participation in equine fairs, the owners would have to produce a certificate of a glanders’ test with negative results carried out on samples drawn within 30 days.
  • Equines showing any clinical sign and pathology of glanders shall not be allowed to enter in the event venue.
  • In equine fairs, an animal shall have its own feeding and watering arrangement. Common watering and feeding shall not be permitted.

Current Affair 2:
Electric Mobility Mission of India

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Recent Developments:

The 36th GST Council Meeting was held in Delhi with the chairmanship of Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman in which:

  1. The GST rate on all electric vehicles be reduced from 12% to 5%.
  2. The GST rate on charger or charging stations for Electric vehicles be reduced from 18% to 5%.
  3. Hiring of electric buses (of carrying capacity of more than 12 passengers) by local authorities be exempted from GST. These changes shall become effective from 1st August 2019.

To expedite the network of electric vehicle, government is taking various steps. Its time go into root from where it all started in India.


The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020 is a National Mission document providing the vision and the roadmap for the faster adoption of electric vehicles and their manufacturing in the country. This plan has been designed to enhance national fuel security, to provide affordable and environmentally friendly transportation and to enable the Indian automotive industry to achieve global manufacturing leadership.

As part of the NEMMP 2020, Department of Heavy Industry formulated a Scheme viz. Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) Scheme in the year 2015 to promote manufacturing of electric and hybrid vehicle technology and to ensure sustainable growth of the same.

FAME scheme (Phase 1 and 2)

Recently, government has notified phase II OF FAME scheme with a budget outlay of 10,000 crore. The scheme will be implemented over a period of three years (FY2019-20 to FY 021-2022).

 It is the expanded version of the present scheme FAME India I (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid) and Electric Vehicles (FAME) which was launched on April 1, 2015, with a total outlay of Rs 895 crore.

Important features for the scheme under FAME 2:

  1. The government has constituted an inter-ministerial panel for monitoring, sanctioning and implementation of projects under the Rs 10,000-crore FAME-II programme, aimed at incentivizing clean mobility.
  2. The Project Implementation and Sanctioning Committee will be chaired by the secretary in the Department of Heavy Industries (very important for prelims). Other members include:

The Phase-II of the FAME scheme is proposed to be implemented through the following verticals:

  • Demand incentives
  • Establishment of network of charging stations; and
  • Administration of the scheme including publicity, IEC (information, education and communication) activities.

 Important points to remember for prelims in Demand incentives are:

  1. The categories of vehicles which are eligible for Demand Incentives are:  electric buses, Four wheelers, three wheelers, two wheelers.
  2. Except two wheelers, incentives will be applicable only for public transport and registered commercial vehicle (in two wheelers, incentives are for private also).
  3. All Vehicles need to be registered with Central Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989.
  4. For individual beneficiaries, not more than one vehicle of particular category be incentivized.
  5. All models eligible for demand incentives will be eligible for three years comprehensive warranty including battery.

How will FAME 2 scheme help improve charging infrastructure?

The centre will invest in setting up charging stations, with the active participation of public sector units and private players. It has also been proposed to provide one slow-charging unit for every electric bus and one fast-charging station for 10 electric buses.

Projects for charging infrastructure will include those needed to extend electrification for running vehicles such as pantograph charging and flash charging, says a notification by the heavy industries ministry. FAME 2 will also encourage interlinking of renewable energy sources with charging infrastructure.

Current Affair 3:
A trio of researchers has discovered Dracaena cambodiana, a dragon tree species in Assam.

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This is for the first time that a dragon tree species has been reported from India.

Why this plan is important?

Dracaena cambodiana is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental tree. it is a major source of dragon’s blood, a precious traditional medicine in China. Several antifungal and antibacterial compounds, antioxidants, flavonoids, etc., have been extracted from various parts of the plant.

Some concerns:

  • Overexploitation to meet the increasing demand for dragon’s blood has resulted in rapid depletion of the plant
  • The Dracaena seeds are usually dispersed by birds. But due to the large fruit size, only a few species of birds are able to swallow the fruits, thus limiting the scope of its natural conservation.

Current Affair 4:
India Set to Launch A Deep Ocean Mission for Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources

Two topics will be covered under this:

  1. What India intends to do under Deep Ocean mission
  2. What is Five Deep Mission?


After successfully venturing into space exploration (Chandrayan-2), The ‘Deep Ocean Mission (DOM)’ to be led by the Union Earth Sciences Ministry will commence from October 31. Government under Deep Ocean Mission intends to focus on deep-sea mining, ocean climate change advisory services, underwater vehicles and underwater robotics related technologies.

Two important projects under the mission include desalination plant powered by tidal energy and submersible vehicle that can explore depths of at least 6,000 meters.

 A major thrust of the mission will be looking for metals and minerals. India has been allotted a site of 75,000 sq. km. in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Seabed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN). These are rocks scattered on the seabed containing iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt. Being able to lay hands on even 10% of that reserve can meet the energy requirement for the next 100 years.

Wait for new updates.

Now other important mission is Five Deep Mission. Name of the Oceans will also be important for prelims exam.

The Five Deeps Expedition is the first to attempt to reach the deepest point in each of the Earth’s five oceans: the Puerto Rico Trench in the Atlantic, South Sandwich Trench in the Southern Ocean, Java Trench in the Indian Ocean, Challenger Deep in the Pacific and Molloy Deep in the Arctic.


Current Affair 5:
Sovereign Overseas Fund

The Finance Minister in her budget speech plans to raise borrowings from overseas market. It has received both- appreciations and criticisms for the same. Let us understand the issue

Before understanding this topic, it is very important to know what actually we understand by term Devaluation.

Whenever in the economy demand for dollar increases, Devaluation occurs.

For example, 1$ = 10rs.

Now if demand for dollar increases and RBI feels now there is a threat to Forex reserve (as more dollars are going out due to demand), RBI will change the equation, i.e. 1$= 11rs (from 10).

Now what you mean by 1$= 11rs (this decrease in value of rupee, i.e. from 10 to 11 is called Devaluation). It means now for one dollar you have to pay 11 rs (before you were paying only 10 rs). So, the demand for dollar will decrease (as you have to pay now 11 instead of 10) and economy will stabilize.

Now why FM decided for overseas borrowing?

The very first statement cited by Finanace Minister, India's sovereign external debt to GDP is among the lowest globally at less than 5 percent. Therefore, we have huge opportunity to tap from overseas.


Few advantages and concerns regarding Sovereign Overseas Fund have been mentioned below:



  1. Rate if interest is low outside.
  2. If government will borrow from overseas, domestic borrowings will be left for Private investors to invest and boost economic growth.
  3. This will also have beneficial impact on demand situation for the government securities in domestic market (As for borrowings, government now need not only depend on domestic markets. As a result, interest can be put low for government bonds)
  4. India will be included in Global Bond market. It will decrease risk and increase faith of investors.
  5. Dollar will be a small part of total borrowings.


Concerns raised:

  1. In 1970s, some central and South American countries borrowed heavily from overseas. Unfortunately, their currency got depreciated and thy were unable to pay debt. Same may happens to India.
  2. If India will borrow from overseas, its foreign exchange reserves will increase. As a result, rupee will get appreciated. It will make imports cheaper. This will hurt India as India is trying to boost domestic market.
  3.  In contrast, due to external reasons, suppose rupee depreciates. It will become difficult for India to repay debt.
  4. Suppose, Government is not able to repay its domestic debt. What it does is it prints currency to repay domestic debt. But it can’t do same with foreign debt as it can’t print foreign currency.


Recently, The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) has asked the Finance Ministry to conduct a detailed study on issuance of overseas sovereign bonds in light of concerns raised by several experts.

Wait for further updates.

Current Affair 6:
Global innovation Index (GII)

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Released jointly by World Intellectual Property organization (WIPO), Cornell University, INSEAD and the 2019 GII Knowledge Partners

Now in its 12th edition, the GII is a global benchmark that helps policy makers better understand how to stimulate and measure innovative activity, a main driver of economic and social development.

Brief introduction for 2019 report

The GII 2019 ranks 129 economies based on 80 indicators, from traditional measurements like research and development investments and international patent and trademark applications to newer indicators including mobile-phone app creation and high-tech exports.

The GII 2019 also looks at the economic context: Despite signs of slowing economic growth, innovation continues to blossom, particularly in Asia, but pressures are looming from trade disruptions and protectionism. Sound government planning for innovation is critical for success, the report shows.

Ranking of Countries.

Switzerland is the world’s most-innovative country followed by Sweden, the United States of America (U.S.), the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (U.K.), according to the 2019 edition of the Global Innovation Index (GII).

For us, India is important. India’s ranking has improved from 57th in 2018 to 52nd in 2019.

India is leading in which dimension of Global innovation Index?


If you want to check ranking of any country, we are attaching pdf below.

Current Affair 7:
India abstains on UN Resolution over materials used for Torture

The 193-member UN General Assembly Friday adopted the resolution ‘Towards torture-free trade: examining the feasibility, scope and parameters for possible common international standards' by a recorded vote of 81 in favour to 20 against, with 44 abstentions.

To understand what this resolution about, go through statement on this resolution in Assembly. The statement reads,

“International community is united in its condemnation of torture and has underscored on many occasions the imperative of working towards its eradication.  According to statement, trade in goods that can only be used for torture or other cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment or punishment has been a longstanding concern at the United Nations. 

Free trade does not mean that the international community should tolerate the import and export of goods that have been specifically designed to maim and kill. turning a blind eye to the torture trade can only empower those who resort to torture and can only help to legitimize an illegal international practice.”

What does above statement means?

This simply means, instruments of torture – such as finger screws, thumb cuffs, leg irons, restraint chairs, spiked batons, and whips embedded with barbs, hooks, or spikes – are still being traded freely across borders. These tools have no purpose beyond inflicting pain and suffering on human beings, yet they continue to cross borders just like any other good. They should be banned.

Why India abstained from voting?

India has abstained from voting on a General Assembly resolution on examining steps to restrict trade in materials used for executions and torture, saying that that it could infringe on the rights of countries that carry out capital punishments provided for under their law “after following the due process of law.

Besides India, some of the other countries that abstained included South Korea, Russia, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates and Indonesia, that had reservations only because of the capital punishment or trade provisions.

Now you have also to remember one more important thing related to Prelims

Alliance for Torture Free Trade (ATFT)

Launched in September 2017 in the margins of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the Alliance for Torture-Free Trade is an initiative of Argentina, the European Union and Mongolia.

India is not a member of this alliance.

Current Affair 8:
PM-KUSUM (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan Mahabhiyan) YOJANA


What you need to remember if any topic related to solar energy comes.


Whenever any news comes about solar energy, first and most important thing that should come up in your mind is India’s Intended Nationally Determined

Contribution (INDCs), i.e. To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy and Solar energy is part of non-fossil fuel-based energy.

Keeping this in mind, A target of installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by the year 2022 has been set which includes:


100 GW from solar (40GW rooftop solar electricity generation and 60GW large and medium-scale grid-connected solar projects (60 GW), 60 GW from wind, 10 GW from bio-power and 5 GW from small hydropower.


Now to install 100GW of solar energy, government is taking up various schemes. One of the scheme is PM-KUSUM (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan Mahabhiyan:

Just try to understand the logic behind the scheme.

At present, over 30 million agricultural pumps are installed in India out of which nearly 10 million pumps are diesel based. Discoms are not in a position to energize these pumps through grid connection. Also, over 20 million grid-connected agriculture water pumps installed in the country consume more than 17 percent of the total annual electricity consumption of the country.

Solarization of these pumps can reduce the dependence of them on conventional sources of energy supplied by Discoms and thus reducing their burden of subsidy on agriculture consumption of electricity.

This will also provide an additional source of income to farmers who will be in a position to sell the surplus power to Discoms.

When it was announced?

It was announced in 2018 budget speech by then Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.

This scheme was formulated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

The proposal on KUSUM Scheme provides for 3 components:

  1. installation of grid-connected solar power plants each of Capacity up to 2 MW in the rural areas;
  2.   installation of standalone off-grid solar water pumps to fulfil irrigation needs of farmers not connected to grid; and
  3.  solarization of existing grid-connected agriculture pumps to make farmers independent of grid supply and also enable them to sell surplus solar power generated to DISCOM and get extra income.


Central Finance Assistance of 30% of the benchmark cost or the tender cost, whichever is lower, of the stand-alone solar agriculture pump will be provided. The state government will give a subsidy of 30%, and the remaining 40% will be provided by the farmer.

However, in the North-Eastern States, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, Lakshadweep and A&N Islands, Central Finance Assistance of 50% of the benchmark cost or the tender cost, whichever is lower, of the stand-alone solar pump will be provided. The state government will give a subsidy of 30%, and the remaining 20% will be provided by the farmer.

Nothing more than is relevant for your prelims Preparation.

Current Affair 9:
National Data Quality Forum

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)’s National Institute for Medical Statistics (ICMR-NIMS), in partnership with Population Council, launched the National Data Quality Forum (NDQF)


Now why it is launched?

India has a rich resource of data on its population, health status and demographic behaviour. India is a data-rich country. It has so many data systems available of the magnitude of 1.3 billion people. It needs to be put it in one place.

As per the statement given by Director General of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), "The purpose of this forum is to ensure, not policing, that the data collected by various agencies goes through a certain rigour for quality, with pre collection planning, collection and post-collection study,"


All data on population, health, demographic behaviour and economic condition, collected by various agencies, will be put through a stringent quality check by the National Data Quality Forum (NDQF). It would also be useful in taking any policy decision by the government.

That is more than sufficient for National Data Quality Forum.


Here we also see one more body- Indian Council of Medical Research.


The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest medical research bodies in the world.

The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

The Council's research priorities coincide with the National health priorities such as control and management of communicable diseases, fertility control, maternal and child health, control of nutritional disorders, etc.

The Governing Body of the Council is presided over by the Union Health Minister (this is important). It is assisted in scientific and technical matters by a Scientific Advisory Board comprising eminent experts in different biomedical disciplines.

Current Affair 10:
UKIERI Mobility Programme

The British Council of India and Universities UK International have joined hands together for the launch of UKIERI Mobility Programme: Study in India.

It will be a bilateral pilot programme which will support UK universities to collaborate with Indian partners to send UK students to India as part of their studies (Keep in mind that UK students will come to India).


The UKIERI Mobility Programme: Study in India will open on July 2019 with an aim to generate 200 opportunities for undergraduate students at UK universities by March 2021, with priority given to students from traditionally underrepresented groups.


The programme will support national and institutional-level objectives to:

  • Increase the levels of outward student mobility from the UK to 13% by 2020, as set out in UUKi's Go International: Stand Out campaign
  • Support the employability of UK graduates and help them prepare for a globally competitive workforce
  • Support the internationalization of Indian higher education through the diversification of the student body, and the consolidation of inter-institutional partnerships

Current Affair 11:
Global Coalition of the Willing on Pollinators

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  By signing Declaration on Global coalition of the willing on Pollinators, partners commit to:

  1. taking action to protect pollinators and their habitats by developing and implementing national pollinator strategies, consistent with the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) thematic assessment on pollinators, pollination and food production
  2. sharing experience and lessons learnt in developing and implementing national pollinator strategies, especially knowledge on new approaches, innovations and best practices;
  3. reaching out to seek collaboration with a broad spectrum of stakeholders;
  4. developing research on pollinator conservation;
  5. mutual support and collaboration

The coalition now has 28 signatories including 17 European countries, five from Latin America and the Caribbean and four from Africa.

India is not a member of coalition.

US and China are also not members of this global coalition.

Recently, Nigeria became the fourth African country to join the Global Coalition of the Willing on Pollinators after Morocco, Ethiopia and Burundi.

 Apart from this, what you need to also remember,

The International Pollinator Initiative Plan of action 2018-2030 – prepared jointly by FAO and CBD Secretariat in consultation with Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).

The first plan of Action was from 2000-2015.

Why Pollinators important for us?

Nothing more than this can be asked in Prelims.

Current Affair 12:
India to conduct 1st National Time Release Study (TRS) to enable faster movement of cargo across borders to benefit traders.

movement of cargo across borders to benefit traders.

What is this Time Release Study?

The TRS is an internationally recognized tool advocated by World Customs Organization to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of international trade flows.

The WCO Time Release Study is a strategic and internationally recognized tool to measure the actual time required for the release and/or clearance of goods, from the time of arrival until the physical release of cargo, with a view to finding bottlenecks in the trade flow process and taking necessary measures to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of border procedures.

The Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, as part of its strategic commitment to improve global trade, is conducting India’s first national Time Release Study (TRS) between 1st – 7th August 2019. The exercise will be institutionalized on an annual basis, during the same period every year hereafter.

How it will help?

  1. It will measure the rule based and procedural bottlenecks (including physical touchpoints) in the clearance of goods.
  2. It will help India maintain the upward trajectory on Ease of Doing Business, particularly on the Trading Across Borders indicator which measures the efficiency of the cross-border trade ecosystem. Last year India’s ranking on the indicator improved from 146 to 80.
  3. Expected beneficiaries of this initiative will be export oriented industries and MSMEs, who will enjoy greater standardization of Indian processes with comparable international standards.

The exercise will be conducted at the same time across 15 ports including sea, air, land and dry ports which cumulatively account for 81% of total Bills of Entries for import and 67% of Shipping Bills for export filed within India.

Current Affair 13:
Only two Indian cities in ‘QS Best Student Cities Ranking’ compiled by global education consultancy QS Quacquarelli Symonds

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Only two Indian cities made in the top 100 of the global rankings that includes Bengaluru at 81st and Mumbai at 85th spot.

London remains the world's leading student city due to the high number of top universities present in the city, its high levels of employer activity and student diversity, and the regard in which it is held by the global student body.

The ranking is based on few parameters. If you look into parameters, it talks about- the number and performance of their universities, the extent to which employers are actively hiring there, the city's affordability, the city's desirability and quality of life, and the diversity of a city's student body.

So, you can use this article as an example whenever you are writing answers on higher education, urbanization, etc.

Not relevant too much for prelims exam. Just you can remember two things:

  1. Name of two Indian cities in the list and who topped the list.

2. Quacquarelli Symonds is a British company specializing in education

Current Affair 14:
Cabinet approves increasing strength of SC Judges

Cabinet approved increasing strength of SC Judges is not so important for you. What is important for you is:

  1. What is the procedure to increase the number of Judges?
  2. Any provisions mentioned in Constitution regarding the number of Judges.

We will start with Article 124(1) which states that:

There shall be a Supreme Court of India constituting of a Chief Justice of India and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than seven other Judges.

Therefore, the strength of Supreme Court Judges can expand by the way of Parliament Legislation. For this purpose, Parliament has enacted The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956 which originally provided for maximum of 10 judges (excluding CJI).

This number was increased to 13 by Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act,1960 and to 17 in 1977.

In 1986, strength of Supreme Court was increased to 25, excluding CJI. Subsequently, Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Act, 2009 further increased strength of Supreme Court judges from 25 to 30 (excluding CJI).

The recent The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Amendment Bill, 2019 has now increased the strength of Judges from 30 to 33(excluding CJI). Once Bill is passed in Parliament, the strength of Judges will become 34 (including CJI).

Why we are doing this? See the image below for the reason.

Current Affair 15:
Flipkart launched Samarth Initiative to empower artisans, weavers and craftsmen


This move will open up national market access for these underserved communities, giving them access to a constantly growing pan-India customer base of more than 150 million and empowering them to leverage the benefits of the e-commerce model.

The rural development ministry has also drawn up a list of 200 products that will be sold on e-commerce platforms, including the Government e-Marketplace (GeM).

Current Affair 16:
UNIDO and National Institute of Solar Energy to partner for skill development program

What is important for us is these two bodies:

  1. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
  2. National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE

  United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability.

The mission of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), as described in the Lima Declaration adopted at the fifteenth session of the UNIDO General Conference in 2013, is to promote and accelerate inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in Member States.

UNIDO’s mandate is fully recognized in SDG-9, which calls to “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation”.

National Institute of Solar Energy

National Institute of Solar Energy as an apex institute of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

The main objective of setting up the National Institute would be to assist the Ministry and function as the apex National Centre for research and technology development and related activities in the area of solar energy technologies in the country. 

The institute would also perform all related tasks to achieve this objective to coordinate various S&T related tasks under the Mission and other activities as decided by the Government from time to time.

Most Important*

Its (NISE) affairs will be managed by a Governing Council to be headed by Secretary, MNRE and an Executive Committee headed by Director General.

Current Affair 17:
India contributed 5 million US dollar to UNRWA in support of Palestine Refugees.


Important for us to remember:

Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, UNRWA was established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution in 1949 to carry out direct relief and works programmes for Palestine refugees.

It is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions from UN Member States.

It defines Palestine refugees, as “persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.

It is also important to remember that India has increased its annual financial contribution to UNRWA from US $1.25 million in 2016 to US$ 5 million in 2018 and 2019. They may ask in Prelims (increased or decreased).

Nothing more than this can be asked.

Current Affair 18:
Kosi-Mechi Link Project

Let us first know about Kosi and Mechi River.

Kosi River:

The river Kosi is an international river originating from Tibet and flowing through Nepal in Himalayan Mountains and the lower portion through plains of North Bihar.

Kosi River is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges and also known as Saptakoshi due to seven of its tributaries. It originates in Tibet. It joins Ganges near Kursela in Katihar district of Bihar.

Mechi River:

The Mechi River is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India. It is a tributary of the Mahananda River. It flows through the Indian state of Bihar to join the Mahananda in Kishanganj district.

About Project:

The Government of India and Nepal signed an agreement on 25th April 1954 for implementation of Kosi project. The Kosi project includes a barrage namely Hanuman Nagar barrage across river Kosi located near Hanuman Nagar town close to Indo-Nepal border, canal headworks, Western Kosi Main Canal (WKMC) system in Nepal, Eastern Kosi Main Canal (EKMC) system in India.

The present proposal is an extension of EKMC up to river Mechi, a tributary of river Mahananda.

This intrastate link scheme will thus transfer part of surplus water of Kosi basin to Mahananda basin.

Similar Project is Ken-Betwa interlinking Project: The project aims to transfer surplus water of Ken River to the Betwa basin in Madhya Pradesh.

Current Affair 19:
Gogabeel is Bihar's first community reserve

Gogabeel, an ox-bow lake in Bihar’s Katihar district, has been declared as the state’s first ‘Community Reserve’.

What are Conservation Reserves?

Conservation reserves and community reserves in India are terms denoting protected areas of India which typically act as buffer zones to or connectors and migration corridors between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserved and protected forests of India.

Now important for Prelims Exam:

  1.  These protected area categories were first introduced in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002 − the amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972
  2. The State Government may, where the community or an individual has volunteered to conserve wildlife and its habitat, declare any private or community land not comprised within a National Park, sanctuary or a conservation reserve, as a community reserve, for protecting fauna, flora and traditional or cultural conservation values and practices.
  3. The State Government shall constitute a Community Reserve management committee, which shall be the authority responsible for conserving, maintaining and managing the community reserve.
  4. Singchung Bugun Village Community Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh wins India Biodiversity Award 2018.

Current Affair 20:
President of India visited to Benin, Gambia and Guinea and Home Minister visited Mozambique

First thing what we need to do is to locate these places.

Capitals of these countries:

  1. Benin:              Porto-Novo
  2. Gambia:              Banjul
  3. Guinea:             Conakry
  4. Mozambique:  Maputo


Two important Agreements signed between India and Mozambique, agreement on sharing white shipping information and co-operation in the field of Hydrography.


Current Affair 21:
Understanding Jammu and Kashmir Through Maps





Points to remember: Just see the map above after each point:


  1. State of Jammu and Kashmir is divided into Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh (see the map).
  2. Indus flow through Ladakh now, not Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. Ladakh share boundaries with – Himachal Pradesh, Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, Siachen Glacier, Aksai Chin and Tibet (below Aksai chin).
  4. Himachal Pradesh shares Boundaries with both the UTs- Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
  5. See the Location of Jammu, Kargil, Srinagar, Leh
  6. Now Jammu and Kashmir don’t touch Siachen Glacier.

We have covered few points. Now try to look into map yourself and try to redraw it again and again.

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