Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2021

Sep 21, 2021

Current Affair 1:
Global Innovation Index 2021


The Global Innovation Index (GII) ranks world economies according to their innovation capabilities. Consisting of roughly 80 indicators, grouped into innovation inputs and outputs, the GII aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innovation.

India has climbed 2 spots and has been ranked 46th by the World Intellectual Property Organization in the Global Innovation Index 2021 rankings. India has been on a rising trajectory, over the past several years in the Global Innovation Index (GII), from a rank of 81 in 2015 to 46in 2021.



Current Affair 2:
Porunai in Sangam Literature

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Scientists from the Beta Analytic Testing Laboratory in Miami, United States, recently carbon dated and analysed rice and soil found in a burial urn at Sivakalai archaeological excavation centre in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu.

The results showed that the rice and soil dated back to 1155 Before Common Era. In other words, they were nearly 3,200 years old, almost as old as the Indus Valley Civilisation, in the north western part of the Indian subcontinent.

This is not the first time the Porunai or Thamirabarani river, in the basin of which Sivakalai is located, has been found to have supported an ancient settlement.

In Sangam literature

The Porunai or Thamirabarani river is mentioned several times in Sangam-era literature composed from the first to fourth centuries Common Era. The Sangam corpus is considered to be a ‘treasure trove’ containing crucial records of the subcontinent’s ancient history.

The only major perennial river in Tamil Nadu, Thamirabarani has been mentioned as Porunai, Than Porunai, Porunal and Poruntham in Tamil literature right from the Sangam era.

What is Havana Syndrome?

It's a mysterious illness that may result in migraines, nausea, memory lapses, vertigo, dizziness and intense headaches. Some victims describe it as being hit by an invisible blast wave. Doctors, scientists, intelligence agencies, and government officials have all been trying to investigate the reasons that cause Havana Syndrome.

Current Affair 3:
UrbanShift – a new global initiative to improve lives and transform cities into green and liveable spaces

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The UN Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environment Facility (GEF) and partners launched UrbanShift – a new global initiative to improve lives and transform cities into green and liveable spaces that address climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution.

UrbanShift will support 23 cities in Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Morocco, Rwanda and Sierra Leone to adopt integrated approaches to urban development, helping shape cities that are efficient, resilient and inclusive.

  1. UrbanShift is working with cities to promote integrated development approaches such as nature-based solutions, low-carbon public transport systems, low-emission zones, and integrated waste management.
  2. Its aims include avoiding more than 130 million tCO2e of greenhouse gas emissions, the equivalent of one year’s emissions from 32 coal-fired power stations.
  3. UrbanShift will also improve the management and restoration of approximately one million hectares of land.

Current Affair 4:
Cruelty to Animals’ cases in India


Article 51A (g) of the Constitution of India states that it is the fundamental duty of every Indian citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.

India has many legislations for protecting animals

Prevention of cruelty to animals has been listed in the Concurrent List which means both the Union and State Governments have the power to enact legislations in this matter. There are broadly three animal protection laws in India, viz. Section 428 & 429 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Besides the three, there are other laws such as The Performing Animals Rules,1973, The Transport of Animals Rules, 1978, and The Experiments on Animals( Control and Supervision) Rules,1968,  which are specific to certain activities.

Section 428 and 429, IPC treats killing or maiming animals as a cognizable offence

Under Sections 428 & 429 of IPC, causing mischief by killing or maiming any animal worth ten rupees or more is a cognizable offence which fetches a punishment of two years in prison, a fine, or both. If any designated animal of any worth or that worth Rs. 50 or more is killed or maimed, the punishment is up to five years in prison and/or a fine.

Wildlife Protection Act

The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 aims to safeguard all plants and animal species in the country to ensure environmental and ecological security. The Act prohibits the hunting of endangered animals while providing for the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, and zoos. According to Section 51of the Act, any person who contravenes any provision of the act shall be guilty of offences listed in the act and shall on conviction, be punishable with imprisonment for three years or fined which may extend to Rs. 25,000 or with both.

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act deals with captive and domestic animals

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (PCA) is a legislation that exclusively deals with captive & domestic animals. The objective of the Act is to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals, such as the incidents mentioned at the beginning of the story. The Act defines animals as any living creature other than a human being. It also defines what captive and domestic animals are, as the legislation is applicable to both these types of animals.


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