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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2021

Dec 01, 2021

Current Affair 1:
Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme UNDER National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE).

 

The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) is one of the eight national missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).

The Government of India launched National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) on 30thJune, 2008 outlining eight National Missions on climate change. These include:

  • National Solar Mission
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • National Water Mission
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Eco-system
  • National Mission for a Green India
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

 

NMEEE consist of four initiatives to enhance energy efficiency in energy intensive industries which are as follows:

We will discuss PAT:

Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme is a market-based compliance mechanism to accelerate improvements in energy efficiency in energy intensive industries. The energy savings achieved by notified industries is converted into tradable instruments called Energy Saving Certificates (ESCerts). The ESCerts after issuance by Bureau of Energy Efficiency are traded at Power Exchanges.

Till now there are 6 cycles of PAT:

Latest cycle is PAT- 6

Current Affair 2:
India specific surveys – ASER & NAS

 

Multiple global surveys have highlighted the significant impact of COVID-19 on school going children & their learning levels.

In India, two different school education related surveys provide insights into children’s education. The ASER is by a non-government organization, and the NAS is conducted by the government.

We will see few international reports:

As per World Bank, based on a study across Europe and Central Asia, around 185 million students were affected due to the closure of schools during the peak of the pandemic.

 

UNICEF’s “Situation Analysis on the Effects of and Responses to COVID-19 on the Education Sector in South Asia” highlights the impact of COVID-19 on education in the region. Around 389 million students have been impacted by school closures.

 

 

As per international studies, even the situation in India presents a gloomy picture like the world over. In this context, two surveys carried out regularly can provide deeper insights into the impact of COVID-19 on education.

  • The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). The 2021 edition of the report was released on 17 November 2021. ASER surveys are organized annually.
  • National Achievement Survey – 2021 (NAS), conducted on 12 November 2021, of which the results are awaited. NAS is conducted every three years.

While the purpose of both surveys is to reflect upon the status of education in the country, the parameters studied in these surveys vary.  Here is a look at both ASER-2021 and NAS -2021, and how they differ in terms of survey methodology & the parameters they study. 

Scope of these Surveys

 

Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on the learning of children is the key goal of both the ASER-2021 and NAS-2021. However, the approach and methods used to ascertain the impact of learning varies.

ASER 2021:

  1. ASER-2021 explored the impact of COVID-19 on various factors influencing students learning.
  2. ASER is a citizen-led household survey that provides nationally representative estimates of children’s schooling status along with their foundational reading and arithmetic skills.
  3. it was an annual survey during 2005 and 2014 and then conducted in alternate years until 2018. The survey is conducted for children in the age group of 3-16 years in nearly all the rural districts of the country.

Few of the critical areas covered in ASER-2021 include– children enrolment, tuition classes, smartphones, access to learning materials, learning support at home, etc.

NAS- 2021:

NAS-2021 is focused on measuring the learning levels and impact of COVID-19. NAS-2021 was conducted by the Central Government’s Ministry of Education on 12 November 2021.

The NAS was launched in 2001-02 and is a school-level survey.

NAS-2021 is a nationwide survey and conducted for Classes 3,5,8 & 10, with the help of the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT) and the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). NAS attempts to assess grade-level competencies of children through the testing instruments prepared by NCERT for each of the classes. NAS 2021 was conducted in 22 languages for various subjects.

Apart from the assessment that would evaluate the learnings, there is also a questionnaire that to collect background information. The coverage includes:

  • Family background
  • Facilities at home
  • Involvement of parents
  • Safety & facilities in school
  • Learning during pandemic

Coverage of the Surveys & Participation

ASER -2021 covered nearly all the rural districts i.e., 581 districts across 25 states & 3 UTs. More than 75 thousand children aged 5-16 years and around 76.7 thousand households were part of the survey.

As per the available provisional data, around 33.42 lakh students participated in the NAS-2021 survey. The participation rate is estimated to be around 88%.

ASER- 2021 provided key insights on the impact of COVID-19 on learning

 

ASER-2021 provided some important insights which highlight the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s learning.

There is a shift in enrolment from Private to Government schools

Children’s access to Smartphones continues to be an issue. Only 27% of the students have access to smartphones all the time while 67% of the students have at least one smartphone at home. Nearly 28% had to buy a new smartphone for children’s education post-pandemic.

There is a decrease in learning support at home as the schools reopened. It fell from 74.9% last year to 66% in 2021.

There is an increase in the proportion of children taking up tuition. As per ASER-2020, 32.5% of students took private tuitions, which increased to 39.2% in ASER -2021. This trend is observed across both boys & girls.

Current Affair 3:
Nano Fertilizers

 

Just read this below image.

Current Affair 4:
The six-sector solution to the climate crisis

 

To ensure a stable climate and make real on the commitment of the Paris Agreement UNEP has identified six sectors with the potential to reduce emissions enough to keep the world below the 1.5°C mark.

Agriculture and Food

Our food systems are critical to reducing emissions. In total, food production solutions can cut emissions by 6.7 Gt a year. Reducing food loss and waste while shifting towards more sustainable diets could reduce emissions by more than 2 Gt a year. Actions are required at every level: government, private sector and the public.

Buildings, Cities and Construction

By 2030 buildings will account for an estimated 12.6 Gt of energy-related emissions. The good news is that some 70 per cent of the urban infrastructure that will be needed to accommodate a fast-growing world is yet to be built. Actions are required at every level: government, private sector and the public.

Energy

The energy sector can cut greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5 gigatonnes (Gt) annually. Humanity does not need to wait for new inventions. Actions are required at every level: government, private sector and the public.

Transport

Transport is responsible for about one-quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions. The sector’s emissions are set to double by 2050. Actions are required at every level: government, private sector and the public.

Industry

Industry could reduce its emissions by 7.3 Gt yearly by embracing passive or renewable-energy-based heating and cooling systems, improving energy efficiency and addressing other pressing issues, such as excessive methane leaks. Actions are required at every level: government, private sector and the public.

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