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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Jul 12, 2022

Current Affair 1:
Biohybrid Materials.

 

News:

Biohybrid materials consist of biocomponents, such as biomolecules, cells, and tissues, and other components such as synthetic polymers, ceramics, metals, and metal oxides.

Biohybrid materials are proceeded by integrating living cells and non-living materials to endow materials with biomimetic properties and functionalities by supporting cell proliferation and even enhancing cell functions. Due to the outstanding biocompatibility and programmability, biohybrid materials provide some promising strategies to overcome current problems in the biomedical field.

Structures of biohybrid materials

Since the functions of materials are closely related to their structures, there is a growing understanding of cell function and cell-materials interaction. This promotes us to exploit some specific functions of living cells by specially designing the structure of biohybrid materials. For instance, biohybrid materials with different forms, such as engineered cell modification, cell-encapsulated microparticles, cell-laden fibers, biohybrid sheets and 3D biohybrid scaffolds, are prevalent in biomedical applications.

Applications of biohybrid materials

Compared with conventional synthetic materials, biohybrid materials are “smarter” and thus hold more ability to mimic biological functions. Due to the integration of living cells and non-living materials, these biohybrid materials could perform biological functions of living cells under the protection and mediation of materials.

Moreover, with the deeper integration of material design and cell biology, the structure of biohybrid materials can cater to their application scenarios better. In brief, biohybrid materials with smaller volumes (such as modified living cells and biohybrid microparticles) are popular in the field of cell delivery, while the larger ones are more suitable for applications such as tissue repairing. Recently, the rapid rise of biohybrid materials promotes the development of the biomedical field, including biomimetic soft robotics, biosensors, cell therapy, tissue engineering, etc.

Few applications are:

  1. Robotics
  2. Biosensors
  3. Cell therapy
  4. Tissue regeneration

Current Affair 2:
Vertical Farming

 

News:

In vertical farming, crops are grown indoors, under artificial conditions of light and temperature. It aims at higher productivity in smaller spaces. It uses soil-less methods such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics.

Vertical farming uses significantly less water and pesticides than traditional agricultural methods. Being indoors, the crops aren't subject to seasons and hence give high productivity year-round. Lettuces, tomatoes and green crops can be produced through this practice.

How Vertical Farming Works?

Firstly, the primary goal of vertical farming is producing more foods per square meter. To accomplish this goal, crops are cultivated in stacked layers in a tower life structure.

Secondly, a perfect combination of natural and artificial lights is used to maintain the perfect light level in the room. Technologies such as rotating beds are used to improve lighting efficiency.

Thirdly, instead of soil, aeroponic, aquaponic or hydroponic growing mediums are used. Peat moss or coconut husks and similar non-soil mediums are very common in vertical farming. Finally, the vertical farming method uses various sustainability features to offset the energy cost of farming. In fact, vertical farming uses 95% less water.

Current Affair 3:
Olive Oil production in India

 

If we go by how olive was introduced in India:

Olive is a small tree of the oleaceae family and is native to the coastal areas of eastern Mediterranean (Italy and Spain), northern Iraq and northern Iran south of the Caspian Sea. In May 2006, a delegation led by agriculture minister Sharad Pawar went to Israel to attend the 16th International Agriculture Exhibition. Rajasthan chief minister Vasundhara Raje was part of the delegation that went to visit world famous Kibbutz, a community cluster, in the Negev desert of southern Israel. She was, clearly, bowled over by the lush olive trees in the arid landscape. It was then introduced in Rajasthan in 2007.

Most important thing to learn in this topic is:

As olive is a very hardy crop and can sustain the temperature variation from -5 to 48 degree Celsius. Thus, it has the potential to be grown in an arid region like Rajasthan. Production of olive oil in India as of now is only in Rajasthan as it is the only region which fits the production criteria.

Most of the olive is imported by India.

No need to read more.

Current Affair 4:
WHO’s Science Council launches report calling for equitable expansion of genomics

Source Link

 

WHO’s Science Council of experts has issued its first report, on ‘accelerating access to genomics for global health’. The report argues that it is not justifiable ethically or scientifically for less-resourced countries to gain access to such technologies long after rich countries do.

The field of genomics uses methods from biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology to understand and use biological information in DNA and RNA, with benefits for medicine and public health – especially during the COVID-19 pandemic – as well as agriculture, biological research and more.

The report calls for expanding access to genomic technologies, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), by addressing shortfalls in financing, laboratory infrastructure, materials, and highly trained personnel.

About Council:

Members:

Science Council is currently comprised of 9 members, who serve in their personal capacity and represent a broad range of disciplines encompassing many aspects of science, ranging from basic research to public health implementation science.

Members are recruited and selected as acknowledged experts from around the world in the fields of basic science, translational and clinical research, social sciences, epidemiology and public health.

Currently, India is not in the council.

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