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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Aug 05, 2022

Current Affair 1:
Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)

 

The Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) are agroecosystems inhabited by communities that live in an intricate relationship with their territory. These evolving sites are resilient systems characterized by remarkable agrobiodiversity, traditional knowledge, invaluable cultures and landscapes, sustainably managed by farmers, herders, fisherfolk, and forest people in ways that contribute to their livelihoods and food security.

Through the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems Programme, since 2005, FAO has designated 67 systems in 22 countries as agricultural heritage sites.

The three GIAHS in India are:

Koraput Traditional Agriculture, Odisha. Kuttanad Below Sea Level Farming System, Kerala. Pampore Saffron Heritage, Jammu & Kashmir.

Current Affair 2:
Volcano in Iceland began erupting again

 

The Fagradalsfjall volcano in Iceland began erupting again June 3, 2022, after eight months of slumber – so far without any adverse impacts on people or air traffic.

Important is why?

Climate change is causing the widespread warming of our land, oceans and atmosphere. Apart from this, it also has the potential to increase volcanic activity, affect the size of eruptions, and alter the “cooling effect” that follows volcanic eruptions.

Cold volcanic regions

First, let’s take a look at volcanic regions covered in ice. There’s a long-established link between the large-scale melting of ice in active volcanic regions and increased eruptions.

Research on Iceland’s volcanic systems has identified a heightened period of activity related to the large-scale ice melt at the end of the last ice age. The average eruption rates were found to be up 100 times higher after the end of the last glacial period, compared to the earlier colder glacial period. Eruptions were also smaller when ice cover was thicker.

But why is this the case? Well, as glaciers and ice sheets melt, pressure is taken off Earth’s surface and there are changes in the forces (stress) acting on rocks within the crust and upper mantle. This can lead to more molten rock, or “magma”, being produced in the mantle – which can feed more eruptions.

The changes can also affect where and how magma is stored in the crust, and can make it easier for magma to reach the surface.

Magma generation beneath Iceland is already increasing due to a warming climate and melting glaciers.

Weather-triggered eruptions

But what about volcanic regions that aren’t covered in ice – could these also be affected by global warming?

Possibly. We know climate change is increasing the severity of storms and other weather events in many parts of the world. These weather events may trigger more volcanic eruptions.

On December 6 2021, an eruption at one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes, Mount Semeru, caused ashfall, pyroclastic flows and volcanic mudflows (called “lahars”) that claimed the lives of at least 50 people.

Changes to the ‘cooling effect’

There’s another layer we can’t ignore when it comes to assessing the potential link between climate change and volcanic activity. That is: volcanoes themselves can influence the climate.

An eruption can led to cooling or warming, depending on the volcano’s geographical location, the amount and composition of ash and gas erupted, and how high the plume reaches into the atmosphere.

Volcanic injections that were rich in sulphur dioxide gas have had the strongest climatic impact recorded in historic times. Sulphur dioxide eventually condenses to form sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere – and these aerosols reduce how much heat reaches Earth’s surface, causing cooling.

Current Affair 3:
Tribal culture of Rajasthan

 

August 9 is celebrated as International Day of the World’s Indigenous People.

The region’s semi-arid and mixed-miscellaneous forests are home to a large population of tribals from the Bhil and Damor communities. Trees like Anogeissus pendula (Dhok), Terminalia arjuna (Arjun), Albizia lebbeck (Saras), Dalbergia paniculata (Palash), etc make up the forests in the region.

The primary source of living is agriculture. On small land holdings, the villagers grow maize, wheat and vegetables like okra, ridged gourd, bottle gourd, tomato, etc.

The smallholding nature of farms allows them to use mechanical agricultural equipment easily. The women in the region play a key role in promoting a sustainable, integrated farming system.

Soil conservation practices like farm bunding and crop rotation are followed, which have helped in soil conservation and promoted the diversification of crops.

When it comes to food and dietary habits, the communities most commonly consume foodgrains like kodra, bati, kang, cheena, hama, hamli and gujro (little millet), along with local vegetables. The minor millets are rich in fibre and iron and improves their immunity.

The immense amount of knowledge these communities have regarding food gathering and cultivation sets an example, especially for those on the path of industrial farming.

The communities’ worship Sherabavs Khankhaliya Dev and Shira Bavasi 14 days after Diwali. The communities also pray to Shira Bavasi after the first crop of the year — the kharif crop — is ready and ancestors are offered bhog.

 

Current Affair 4:
Supply and Demand of Coal

 

The details of domestic supply and demand of coal during the last five years are given below:-

Current Affair 5:
Recycling of Waste

 

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)has prepared National Inventory Report on Wastes Generation and its Management on annual basis based on the annual inventory received from the concerned State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) / Pollution Control Committees (PCCs).

The details of number of recycling units, treatment capacity/quantity recycled/processed/treated across the country waste wise are as follows:

Ministry under its central sector scheme “Creation of Management Structures for Hazardous Substances” provides financial assistance for innovative technologies for environmentally sound management of chemicals and wastes.

Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has amended the existing Scheme for Promotion of Manufacturing of Electronic Components and Semiconductors (SPECS) to provide support for setting up of state-of-art e-waste recycling facilities for extraction of precious metals from e-waste components. The scheme envisioned for financial incentive of 25% on capital expenditure.

 

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