Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Aug 18, 2022

Current Affair 1:
Current status of Central Public Sector enterprises (CPSEs)


The number of CPSEs is on a rise, but operating CPSEs remain stagnant

The total number of CPSEs in 2011-12 was 225, which consistently increased to 389 in 2020-21. This number includes the operating CPSEs, those CPSEs under construction, and the CPSEs under closure or liquidation.

However, the number of operating CPSEs increased from 225 in 2011-12 to 258 in 2017-18, after which it stagnated at around 255. Consequently, the number of CPSEs under construction rose from 74 in 2016-17 to 108 in 2020-21, while those under closure/liquidation grew from 2 in 2016-17 to 26 in 2020-21.

70% of the operating CPSEs are profit-making

It is a general misconception that CPSEs are not economically efficient, and they are unviable in the longer term. However, the data suggests that out of the total operating CPSEs, the profit-making CPSEs average about 70%. From 2016-17, the number of profit-making CPSEs is hovering around 177, and the loss-making CPSEs are averaging at 77.

Overall profit and net worth of CPSEs on a consistent rise


Data indicates that profit-making CPSEs dominate the total operating CPSEs. The net profit of the profit-making CPSEs grew from Rs. 1.26 Lakh Crore in 2011-12 to Rs. 1.89 Lakh Crore in 2020-21. Similarly, the net loss of loss-making CPSEs stood at an average of Rs. 0.29 Lakh Crores between 2011-12 and 2020-21.

Dipping Foreign Exchange earnings

CPSEs play an important role in earning foreign exchange through the export of goods and services. Exports of goods and merchandise and other income are the major sources of foreign exchange earnings of CPSEs.

Contribution to Central Exchequer doubled compared to 2011-12

The contribution of the CPSEs to the Central Exchequer has improved during the last decade. It rose from Rs. 1,62,402 Crore in 2011-12 to Rs. 4.96 Lakh Crore in 2020-21. The increase became more significant from 2014-15. It rose from Rs. 1,62, 402 Crore in 2011-12 to Rs. 2,00,593 Crore in 2014-15, thereafter it rose to Rs.2,75,439 Crore in 2015-16, followed by Rs. 3,60,815 Crore in 2016-17.

Current Affair 2:
Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)


It is a prior art database of Indian traditional knowledge established in 2001, jointly by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy (ISM&H, now Ministry of AYUSH). 

The TKDL is a first of its kind globally and has been serving as an exemplary model to other nations

The TKDL currently contains information from existing literature related to ISM such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa and Yoga. 

The information is documented in a digitized format in five international languages which are English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish. 

TKDL provides information in languages and format understandable by patent examiners at Patent Offices worldwide, so as to prevent the erroneous grant of patents. 

Until now, access to the complete TKDL database is restricted to 14 Patent Offices worldwide for the purposes of search and examination.  This defensive protection through TKDL has been effective in safeguarding Indian traditional knowledge from misappropriation, and is considered a global benchmark.

The TKDL can cater to a vast user base that would include businesses/companies, personal care, and other FMCG}, research institutions: public and private; educational institutions: educators & students; and others: ISM practitioners, knowledge holders, patentees and their legal representatives, and government, among several others. 

The access to the TKDL database would be through a paid subscription model with a phase-wise opening to national and international users.


Current Affair 3:
Leave applications by 17th Lok Sabha MPs


The 17th Lok Sabha has met for a total of 192 days. However, as observed earlier, the average attendance has been low. But what are the reasons cited by MPs for their absence? Do they submit leave applications? Here is an analysis of the leave applications submitted by MPs of the Lok Sabha during the different sessions of the 17th Lok Sabha.

Article 101 mandates that MPs should take permission to be absent for 60 days or more

One of the conditions for disqualification is when a member of either house of parliament remains absent for a period of 60 days without permission. If the member doesn’t seek permission for absence for 60 days, then the House will declare the seat vacant.

The period of absence is calculated from the day a member is absent from the sittings of the House till the day he next attends it, whether in the same session or in subsequent sessions. However, if the vacancy is due to adjournment of the House for four or more consecutive days, no action will be taken. 

Leave applications are examined by a Parliamentary Standing Committee


In the Lok Sabha, a leave application must be submitted by the concerned MP to the Speaker of the House, or the Secretariat, or the Chairman of the Committee on Absence of Members.

One single leave application cannot exceed 60 days. The application must include the reasons for absence. The applications received are then placed before the ‘Committee on Absence of Members from the sittings of the House’ for their consideration and report. The committee, which is a standing committee in the Lok Sabha, meets and examines each leave application and cases where a member has been absent for a period of 60 days or more, without permission, from the sittings of the House.

33 MPs and 2 Ministers submitted a total of 86 leave applications seeking leave for 1,768 days

In the 9 sessions of the 17th Lok Sabha, a total of 86 leave applications were submitted by 33 MPs and 2 Ministers. Altogether, the 86 leave applications sought leave for 1768 days. While all the applications were approved, leaves were approved for a total of 1697 days. This is because the committee does not recommend leaves for more than 59 days. The members may be granted leave for 59 days in the first instance and asked to apply afresh for the remaining period for which they seek absence. 

Current Affair 4:
Perovskite Materials for Solar Cells


The perovskite material is derived from the calcium titanate (CaTiO3) compound, which has the molecular structure of the type ABX3. Perovskite materials have attracted wide attention because of the cubic lattice-nested octahedral layered structures and the unique optical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties.

Perovskite materials used in solar cells are a kind of organic-inorganic metal halide compound with the perovskite structure, in which Group A (methylammonium, CH3, MA+, or formamidinium, , FA+) is located in the vertex of the face-centred cubic lattice, and the metal cation B (Pb2+, Sn2+, etc.) and halogen anion X (Cl-, Br-, or I-, or a coexistence of several halogens) occupy the core and apex of the octahedra, respectively.

The materials with such a structure have the following four features.

Firstly, the materials possess excellent photoelectric properties, lower exciton binding energy, and high optical absorption coefficients (up to 104 cm−1).

Secondly, perovskite as the light-absorbing layer can absorb solar energy efficiently.

Thirdly, the materials possess a large dielectric constant and electrons and holes can be effectively transmitted and collected.

Lastly, electrons and holes can be transmitted simultaneously and the transmission distance is up to 100 nm or more and even more than 1 μm.



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