Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Nov 07, 2022

Current Affair 1:
Facial recognition technology (FRT)


The National Strategy on Artificial Intelligence (NSAI), published in 2018 by NITI Aayog, included a roadmap for implementing AI in five public sectors in a way that is secure and provides advantages to all residents.

As a follow-up to NSAI, stakeholder consultations on the suggested strategy for the responsible use of new technologies were launched in partnership with the World Economic Forum in 2019. The result was the publication of a two-part methodology paper outlining the principles for ethical artificial intelligence (AI) deployment in India as well as the enforcement methods for putting these principles into practise (RAI principles).

Facial recognition technology (FRT) has been taken as the first use case for examining the RAI principles.

FRT refers to an AI system that allows identification or verification of a person based on certain images or video data interfacing with the underlying algorithm.

FRT applications based on the use can be divided in two broad sectors – the non-security use cases, and the security uses of FRT.

Examples of non-security uses of FRT range from international uses of FRT to provide greater ease of access to airport facilities, to educational systems using FRT to generate unique IDs to select college course options, while security uses of FRT typically include the use of FRT for general law and order considerations, like investigation, identification of missing persons, identifying persons of interest to the law enforcement among others.


Current Affair 2:
Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)



The Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) is a not-for-profit membership association that acts as a catalyst for the responsible development of travel and tourism to, from and within the Asia Pacific region.

Since 1951, PATA has led from the forefront as the leading voice and authority on travel and tourism in the Asia Pacific region. As the premier travel and tourism industry association in the Asia Pacific region, the Association endorses the UN Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and supports the work of the World Committee on Tourism Ethics, encouraging its members to also do the same.

PATA Association supports the right of freedom of movement without prejudice and intolerance in line with the rights of each sovereign nation and the will of its people.

It is the Association’s position to ensure there is equal opportunity for all travellers without discrimination or harassment on the basis of race, colour, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, marital status, citizenship, genetic information, or any other characteristic protected by relevant laws, legislation and regulations.

Current Affair 3:
SC: 10% Reservation in Government Jobs and Education for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) is Valid


In Janhit Abhiyan vs. Union of India with 32 connected matters, several pleas were filed in the Apex Court challenging the constitutional validity of the 103rd amendment to the Constitution, 2019 which introduced 10% reservation, in addition to the existing reservations, for the economically weaker sections (EWS) among the unreserved categories, in admissions and government jobs.

The matter was heard by a 5-judge bench. With a 3:2 majority, the validity of the amendment was upheld.

What judges said? You can use this in answer writing.

According to Justice Maheshwari, poverty was not merely a state of stagnation but a point of regression. Referring to the UN’s resolution to “end poverty in all its forms everywhere” and to past judgements he held that affirmative action for the economically disadvantaged was necessary to eliminate socioeconomic inequalities. He concluded by stating that reservation is an instrument to include not only socially and educationally backward classes but also any class/section which is disadvantaged including the economically disadvantaged. Thus, including economic criteria in reservation does not violate the essence or damage the basic structure of the Indian Constitution.

Justice Trivedi noted that the amendment paved way for a separate class of “economically weaker sections of the citizens” from the general/unreserved class, without affecting the special rights of reservations provided to the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe and backward class of citizens covered under Article 15(4), 15(5) and 16(4). Hence, excluding them from the benefits for “economically weaker sections of the citizens” in the amendment was not discriminatory or violative of the equality code.

According to Justice Pardiwala, the economic backwardness in India is not confined only to those who are covered by Article 15(4) or Article 16(4) of the Constitution. Only a small percentage of the population is above the poverty line and denying higher education opportunities and employment to the economically backward is to deny those who are qualified and deserving. Further, if economic advancement may be considered to negate social disadvantages from the OBCs, the converse can also be considered to grant reservation to the economically disadvantaged.

Against judgement:

On the other side, Justice Bhat and Chief Justice Lalit held that reservation is a powerful tool to enable equal access and opportunity, and so an economic basis for the reservation was permissible. However, excluding other disadvantaged classes like SCs/ STs/OBCs on grounds that they already have reservations was heaping injustice based on their past disability. They added that the entire exclusionary principle is Orwellian as all are entitled to be considered regardless of their caste or class but only those who belong to other classes or castes would be considered and socially disadvantaged classes would be ineligible.



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