Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2023

Jan 31, 2023

Current Affair 1:


President Droupadi Murmu approved a new name for the Mughal Garden in Rashtrapati Bhavan as AMRIT UDYAN.  The officials announced that the Mughal Garden is being renamed to Amrit Udyog on the occasion of the celebrations of 75 years of Independence as 'Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’. The Mughal gardens have specific designs with a pond, running water, and two cones of fountains on either side. 

Mughal Garden was built in 1928-29 at Rashtrapati Bhavan.  Spread across 15 acre this attraction draws inspiration from the Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir , the gardens around Taj Mahal and from the miniature paintings of eastern part of India and Persia.

It is believed that the garden was the brainchild of Sir Edwin Lutyens , who is also known as architect of New Delhi. But, in fact, the designer was William Mustoe, the director of horticulture. Lutyens and Mustoe after long discussions agreed to showcase two different horticulture traditions together – the grand Mughal Park and the English Flower Garden. Mustoe was given total freedom to build the Mughal Garden.       The garden has an international flavour. There are the tulips from the Netherlands, Brazilian orchids, cherry blossoms and assorted seasonal flowers from Japan and water lilies from China, among others. They bloom amid the geometric beds of Mughal design alongside Mughal canals, terraces, all blending artistically with European flowerbeds, lawns and hedges.

The rose remains a key feature of the Mughal Gardens, with over 150 varieties growing in the shadow of the presidential residence. These include Adora, Mrinalini, Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower, Modern Art, Black Lady, Paradise, Blue Moon and Lady X. Roses are also named after icons such as Mother Teresa, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, John F. Kennedy, Queen Elizabeth and Christian Dior, with Arjun and Bheem from the Mahabharata among them.

More than 70 varieties of seasonal flowers also grow in the expansive garden. It also has 60 of the 101 known types of bougainvillea. The garden has the moulsiri tree, golden rain tree and the torch tree. The CPWD employees live on the Rashtrapati Bhawan Estate and are not transferred to other places.

Can Presidents ask for the changes to be made ?

Yes , many have done it. In order to make Mughal Garden even better and enchanting, the then President APJ Abdul Kalam developed the Herbal Garden, Tactile Garden for the visually handicapped, Musical Garden, Bio-Fuel Park and Spiritual and Nutrition Garden.In 1998, K R Narayanan asked the Centre for Science and Environment to install rainwater harvesting system to recharge groundwater on the estate. In 2015, Pranab Mukherjee inaugurated a sewage treatment plant to supply recycled water for the garden and had a reservoir filled up to attract wetland birds.

The Taj Mahal Garden, Agra Fort, Humayun's Tomb Garden, and the Red Fort Garden are the most popular Mughal Gardens in India. Babur, the Mughal empire's founder, defined his favourite style of garden as a Charbagh.

Mughal Gardens were used for a variety of purposes, such as airy quadrangles inside royal structures, pleasure getaways, and as a platform for hunting trips. The gardens were also utilized as official rest stops, whilst the park was solely allocated for women (Zenan khana) and furnished with extra amenities like hammams.                                                       Terraces , Concept of Baradari which is a canopied structure with twelve open doors with three in each direction are some of the key features. Agra’s Ram Bagh (Araam Bagh) , Delhi’s Humayun Tomb , Agra’s Taj Mahal , Kashmir’s Nishant bagh and Chashma Sahi in Zabarwan mountains , Shalimar Gardens which is rectangular and not char bagh are some of the examples of Mughal gardens.          Nishat Bagh , Shalimar Bagh , Achabal Bag , Chashma Shahi
Pari Mahal , Verinag are some of the Mughal Gardens in tentative list of UNESCO”S World Heritage Convention.


Current Affair 2:


The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, organized an opening ceremony for the International Year of Millets – 2023 in Rome, Italy. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has declared 2023 as the International Year of Millets. United Nations General Assembly unanimously approved the resolution sponsored by India to declare 2023 as International Year of Millets. In 2018, India had proposed to celebrate 2023 as International Year of Millets at Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO). India had declared 2018 as the National year of millets. In India, pearl millet is the fourth-most widely cultivated food crop after rice, wheat and maize.


What are the features of Millets ?

Millets are high in protein , dietary fibre , micronutrients and antioxidants and have special agronomic characteristics like they are drought resistant and suitable for semi-arid regions. They are glutten-free which is advantageous for people suffering from diabetes. They are anti-carcinogenic foods and anti-hypertensive. Millets reduce inflammation and improve digestion. They are called Famine reserves as they have a short growing season of 65 days. As against the requirement of 5,000 litres of water to grow one kilogram of rice, millets need hardly 250-300 litres.

What types of Millets are grown in India ?

Two groups of millets are grown in India as classified on the basis of their grain size. Major millets include sorghum , pearl millet and finger millet while Minor millets include foxtail , little millet , kodo ,kutki , chenna , senwa, proso and barnyard millet. Amaranth (rajgira) and buckwheat (kuttu) are called pseudo-millets as they are not part of botanical family to which true grains belong. Pseudo millets are nutritionally similar to millets and are used in similar ways. Millets are grown in about 21 States. There is a major impetus in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana and millets are being pushed in Manipur , Mghalaya and Nagaland as it is a major staple diet for the tribes in the region.

What do the data say ?

In 2019-20, the total production of nutricereals or coarse cereals was 47.7 million tonnes. The bulk of this was maize (28.8 million tonnes), a non-millet crop . M.S. Swaminathan had suggested that coarse cereals be replaced by nutricereals). The production of pearl millet ,sorghum  and finger  millet along with other millets in that order put together was 18.9 million tonnes. Currently, millets are procured in only a few States, and stocks in the central pool are small. In May 2022, central stocks had over 30 million tonnes of rice and wheat, but only four lakh tonnes of nutri-cereals i.e millets. The top three importers of millets from India in 2020-21 were Nepal , UAE and Saudi Arabia.

What are the issues and situation at hand ?

Decline in the area under millet cultivation , low productivity.  Over the last decade , the production of sorghum (jowar) has fallen,production of pearl millet (bajra) has stagnated,and the production of other millets, including finger millet (ragi), has stagnated or declined. The productivity of jowar and bajra has increased, but only marginally.


What are the efforts undertaken ?

Action Plan for promoting millets has been brought out by Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) for increasing exports for a period of 2021-26. In 2013-14, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) supported an initiative to revive Kodo and Kutki Millets cultivation in Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh also called as Dindori Project. Production linked Incentive scheme for Food Processing Industry incentivises millets based products.






Current Affair 3:


India has sought modification of the 62-year-old treaty that governs the sharing of waters of the Indus system. India objects to two simultaneous dispute resolution mechanisms that have been set in motion.

 The Indus Waters Treaty was signed in 1960 after nine years of negotiations between India and Pakistan with the help of the World Bank, which is also a signatory. The negotiations were the initiative of former World Bank President Eugene Black.

The disagreement between India and Pakistan concerns the design features of the Kishenganga (330 megawatts) and Ratle (850 megawatts) hydroelectric power plants. The former was inaugurated in 2018 while the latter is under construction. The World Bank is not financing either project. Shahpurkandi project , Ujh multipurpose project and 2nd  Ravi Beas link below Ujh are three projects that will help India to utilize its entire share of waters given under the Indus Waters Treaty 1960.


Both India and Pakistan undertook to establish a permanent post of Commissioner for Indus Waters. The two Commissioners constitute the Permanent Indus Commission (PIC). Unless either Government should decide to take up any particular issue directly with the other Government, each Commissioner will be the representative of his Government for all matters arising out of this Treaty.

The Commission is required to meet regularly at least once a year, alternately in India and Pakistan and also when requested by either Commissioner. The Commission is also required to undertake tours of inspection of the Rivers and Works for ascertaining the facts connected with various developments and works on the Rivers.

Cost of Hydrologic observation stations setup by a country after request by the other country will be paid by the requesting country. Cost of Drainage works will also be paid by the requesting country as per the practicability and agrrement.

TREATY with Other countries :- A Mahakali (Sharda) Treaty has been signed with Nepal in the year 1996.  Koshi and Gandak Agreement are other agreements with Nepal.

Ganga / Ganges Waters sharing Treaty was signed with Bangladesh in the year 1996 for sharing of Ganga/Ganges waters at Farakka. As per the Treaty, the Ganges waters is being shared at Farakka (which is the last control structure on river Ganga in India) during lean period, from 1st January to 31st May every year, on 10-day period basis as per the formula provided in the Treaty.


Current Affair 4:


The Attorney General of India is the highest law officer of the country and also the chief legal advisor to the government of India. It is a Constitutional post. The first attorney general of India was M.C SETALVAD (28th January 1950 – 1st March 1963).

The Attorney General of India is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Union Cabinet. Attorney General represents the central government in any reference made to the Supreme Court under article 143 by the president.

Qualifications for becoming judge of the Supreme Court -

They must be either a judge of a high court for five years or an advocate in a High court for 10 years or an eminent jurist in the opinion of president.

Powers of Attorney General of India;-

The attorney general enjoys the right of audience in any court of the country when concerned with his duties.He further enjoys all the immunities and special privileges available to an MP.He has the right to participate in the proceedings of both the houses without the right to vote and can be designated as a member. He can also participate in any parliamentary committee as its member. Attorney General of India is an ex-officio member of Bar Council of India. Attorney General of India alone has the right to set in motion contempt of court proceedings against a person in Supreme Court of India.


As per Section 15 of The Contempt of Courts Act,1971 , The Attorney General may bring in motion before the court for initiating a case of criminal contempt. If the motion is brought by any other person, the consent in writing of the AG or the Advocate General is mandatorily required in case of High Courts.


Limitations of Attorney General of India:-

S/He cannot accept the offer as a director in any corporation or company without permission of government of India’s permission. S/he doesn’t fall under the ambit of government servants and is not barred from undertaking private practice.

When the court itself initiates a contempt of court case, also called the Suo Moto cases, the AG’s consent is not required.  Supreme Court’s judgment in “Vijay Kurle & Ors, being Suo Motu Contempt Petition (Criminal) No. 2 of 2019 settles the position that in suo motu criminal contempt cases, the consent of Attorney General is not required. 



Term of Attorney General’s Office:-

The notification regarding appointment of Attorney General of India is issued by Department of Legal affairs, Union Ministry of Law and Justice. As per the Law Officers (Conditions of Service) Rules, 1972 , the term of Law officer shall be three years from the date on which the officer enters upon the office.



There is no specified tenure or fixed term as mentioned in the Constitution Of India though AGI can resign anytime by submitting resignation to the President of India or can be removed by the President of India at any time.

There is no procedure or ground mentioned in the constitution for removal of Attorney General of India.

Headquarters and Leave and Remuneration :-



It is not a public office under RTI.

Attorney General of India doesn’t take any oath or affirmation even under third schedule.



Current Affair 5:


ASER stands for Annual Status of Education Report and is being prepared by NGO PRATHAM.

 This is an annual survey that aims to provide reliable estimates of children’s enrolment and basic learning levels for each district and state in India. ASER has been conducted every year since 2005 in all rural districts of India. It is the largest citizen-led survey in India. It is also the only annual source of information on children’s learning outcomes available in India today.

ASER is a household survey rather than school based survey. This design enables all children to be included – those who have never been to school or have dropped out, as well as those who are in government schools, private schools, religious schools or anywhere else.

In each rural district, 30 villages are sampled. In each village, 20 randomly selected households are surveyed. This process generates a total of 600 households per district, or about 3,00,000 households for the country as a whole. Approximately 7,00,000 children in the age group 3-16 who are residents in these households are surveyed in over 19,000 villages.

Information on schooling status is collected for all children living in sampled households who are in the age group 3-16. Children in the age group 5-16 are tested in basic reading and basic arithmetic. The same test is administered to all children. The highest level of reading tested corresponds to what is expected in Std 2; in 2012 this test was administered in 16 regional languages.

Every year, some additional tests are also administered. These vary from year to year. In 2007, 2009, and 2012, for example, children were tested in basic English. In addition, basic household information is collected every year. In recent years, this has included household size, parental education, and some information on household assets.

All kinds of institutions partner with ASER: colleges, universities, NGOs, youth groups, women’s organisations, self-help groups and others.

The ASER reading test assesses whether a child can read letters, words, a simple paragraph at Std I level of difficulty, or a “story” at Std II level of difficulty. The test is administered one on one to all children in the age group 5 to 16 in sampled households. Each child is marked at the highest level that she or he can reach comfortably.

Findings of ASER Report 2022.

The enrollment rate for the 6 to 14 age group has been above 95% for the past 15 years. The ASER report reveals that almost all (98.4%) students in the age bracket of 6-14 years are now enrolled in schools. 

The period 2006 to 2014 saw a steady decrease in the proportion of children (age 6 to 14) enrolled in government school. In 2014, this figure stood at 64.9% and did not change much over the following four years. However, the proportion of children (age 6 to 14) enrolled in government school increased sharply from 65.6% in 2018 to 72.9% in 2022. Increase in government school enrollment is visible for almost every state in the country.

In 2006, the All India figure for the percentage of girls age 11-14 who were out of school stood at 10.3%, falling over the following decade to 4.1% in 2018. This proportion has continued to drop. In 2022, the all India figure for 11-14-year-old girls not enrolled in school stands at 2%. This figure is around 4% only in Uttar Pradesh and is lower in all other states.

The proportion of 15-16-year-old girls not enrolled has continued to drop, standing at 7.9% in 2022. Only 3 states have more than 10% of girls in this age group out of school: Madhya Pradesh (17%), Uttar Pradesh (15%), and Chhattisgarh (11.2%).

Nationally, the proportion of children in Std I-VIII taking paid private tuition classes increased from 26.4% in 2018 to 30.5% in 2022. In Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand, the proportion of children taking paid private tuition increased by 8 percentage points or more over 2018 levels. The exceptions are Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Tripura.

Nationally, children’s basic reading ability has dropped to pre-2012 levels, reversing the slow improvement achieved in the intervening years. Drops are visible in both government and private schools in most states, and for both boys and girls.

Nationally, children’s basic arithmetic levels have declined over 2018 levels for most grades. But the declines are less steep and the picture is more varied than in the case of basic reading.

At the All-India level, no major change is seen in students’ and teachers’ attendance. Average teacher attendance increased slightly, from 85.4% in 2018 to 87.1% in 2022. Average student attendance continues to hover at around 72% for the past several years.

Most children had received their textbooks for the current academic year. Textbooks had been distributed to all grades in 90.1% of primary schools and in 84.4% of upper primary schools. n About 80% of all primary schools had received a directive to implement Foundational Literacy and Numeracy (FLN) activities with their students, and about the same proportion had at least 1 teacher who had received training on FLN.




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