Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2023

Feb 06, 2023

Current Affair 1:
5 collegium-picked judges to be posted soon: Centre




The Supreme Court on Friday recorded a submission by Attorney General R. Venkataramani that warrants of appointment of five judges to the top court will likely be issued by February 5.


Related constitutional provisions  -Articles 124(2) and 217 of the Indian Constitution deal with the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts .

What is a Collegium System and How Did It Evolve-

It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the




First judges case, 1982

A petition was filed in 1982 in the Supreme Court of India. This case is known as the S.P.Gupta Case or First Judges case. The Supreme Court discussed 2 major points during the proceedings of this case. When asked the Supreme Court of India whether the word consultation” in the constitutional article 124 mean concurrence”; the Supreme court overruled this and denied saying that Consultation does not mean concurrence. The President was not bound to make a decision based on the consultation of the Supreme Court. Another important point in the discussion, in this case, was the part where the Supreme Court decided that a High Court Judge can be transferred to any other high court of a state even against his will.

 Second judges case,1993

Another petition was filed in 1993 by the Supreme Court Advocates on Record Association (SCARA). In this case, the Supreme court overruled its earlier verdict and changed the meaning of consultation to concurrence. Thus binding the President of India with the consultations of the Chief justice of India. This resulted in the birth of the Collegium System.

 Third Judges Case, 1998 

In the year 1998, the presidential reference to the Supreme court was issued questioning the meaning of the word consultation in articles 124, 217, and 222 of the Constitution. The chief justice wont be the only one as a part of the consultation process. Consultation would include a collegium of 4 senior-most judges of the Supreme court. Even if 2 of the judges are against the opinion, the CJI will not recommend it to the government.


Reforming the collegium system, the quality of judges can also be improved through the implementation of All India Judicial Services (AIJS).



Current Affair 2:
19 families shifted after houses in J&K village develop crack  around 21 structures developed large cracks due to the sinking surface in the Chenab valley’s Doda district.



Issue of land subsidence

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), subsidence is the “sinking of the ground because of underground material movement”. It can happen for a host of reasons, man-made or natural, such as the removal of water, oil, or natural resources, along with mining activities.  Earthquakes, soil erosion, and soil compaction are also some of the well-known causes of subsidence. The NOAA also mentions that this phenomenon can “happen over very large areas like whole states or provinces, or very small areas like the corner of your yard.”






These processes include groundwater dissolving underlying carbonate rock, gradual compaction of sediments, withdrawal of fluid lava from beneath a solidified rock crust, and pumping subsurface fluids like groundwater or petroleum.Tectonic subsidence, which results from the crusts tectonic deformation, can provide space for sediment to build up and eventually lithify into sedimentary rock. 

Geologists, geotechnical engineers, surveyors, engineers, urban planners, landowners, and the general public are all concerned about ground sinking on a global scale.

Current Affair 3:
In Tihar jail to get AI powered surveillance system


Tihar jail is installing articial intelligence (AI)powered CCTV cameras to monitor inmates and ght crime

Issue - prison reforms


AI powered CCTV cameras will help detect movements in dark spots”, the grievance redressal system will operate like police control rooms (PCR) to address the problems of inmates in real time Issue of overcrowding.

Tihar jail – the largest prison complex of South Asia –is home to some of the  most highprofile criminals

How it works

AI CCTV cameras cover repetitive hand movements such as while assaulting another person, or hand movements suggestive of a phone call, and automatically trigger an alert to the officers. The cam eras will also capture in stances of inmates leaving the designated perimeter

The new mechanism will address physical and mental distress calls in real time. A PCR call like feature set up in each ward will help res pond to distress calls. Staffers will also be provided with walkie-talkies to communicate with each other.

The Supreme Court recently stated that it is a sorry state of affairs” in Tihar Jail which has become a den of criminals and murders are happening there, while directing the Home Ministry to take immediate steps on prison reforms and enhance management.





The administration and management of the modern prison system in India is governed by the Prisons Act of 1894, which has its origins in the recommendations of the Prison Discipline Committee appointed in 1836 by Lord Macaulay, followed by constitution of four jail commissions to review the system from time to time. 




Current Affair 4:
India to showcase success in rural and archaeological tourism at G20 meeting




The Ladpura Khas village of Madhya Pradesh, Khonoma village of Nagaland and heritage sites like Dholavira will be showcased as success stories of rural and archaeological tourism by India during the rst tourism working

 group meet ing of the G20 nations to be held at the Rann of Kutch.


Topic - Rural tourism


Potential of rural tourism in India:

The development of a strong platform around the concept of Rural Tourism is definitely useful for a country like India, where almost 74% of the population resides in its 7 million villages. Numerous local traditions like plays, art forms, dances etc. enhance the cultural wealth of rural areas, making these attractive for the tourists.

Lush green forests in south Indian villages, sacred groves etc. make them an ideal site to promote tourism. Growing trend of short-break holidays, rural areas being near to cities can easily provide for great tourism destinations.When developed to its fullest potential, it could provide jobs to many young men and women who otherwise are increasingly migrating to cities.Rural tourism can revive many of the arts and crafts traditionally being practiced in the rural communities but dying a slow death.  

Socially, it can open rural mindset to new thoughts and ideas from the outside world. On the other hand, for the urban citizen, a few days spent amidst traditional rural lifestyle may prove to be a great stress reliever. Rural Tourism is any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, art, culture and heritage at rural locations, thereby benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more enriching tourism experience.




India being a nation of diversities has a lot to offer to tourists. Rural tourism in India is still in the developing stage but once tapped to its full potential, it can open great vistas of mutual benefit for both the tourists as well as the rural people alike. Every region, state, and the village of our country has its own language, culture, tradition, customs, costumes and cuisines which can offer a unique non- urban experience of a lifetime. Rural tourism can offer unforgettable experiences. In fact, it offers a journey back to our roots encompassing a wide range of activities and attractions all set in a natural rural environment. It is also a very important activity from the perspective of rural development because of its contribution to the economic and social development of rural people.

Current Affair 5:
Fire breaks out in newly built Telangana Secretariat building


Issue - Urban fire

Urbanisation leads to house densification, a phenomenon experienced in both planned and unplanned settlements in cities. In densely packed urban areas of India, devastating fires are the most predominant risks.

According to India Risk Surveys 2018, India ranks 3rd in fire incidents, especially in the Northern and Western regions of the country. Typical causes of fire disasters in urban areas include usage of wood fuel and charcoal for room heating, waste burning around courtyards, poor city infrastructure for firefighting and accessibility which increase the potential for fire risk occurrence.




Provisions Related To Fire Safety In India

Constitutional Provision: Fire Services is a State subject and is included as a Municipal function in the XII Schedule of the Constitution of India under Article 243 (W). National Building Code of India 2016 (Fire and Life safety): The National Building Code of India covers the detailed guidelines for construction, maintenance and fire safety of the structures. The National Building Code (NBC) of India is published by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) of India and it is a recommendatory document”.


Major Causes Of Fires 

  • Electrical faults are cited as the leading cause of fires but State governments are widely criticised for being lax with building safety laws and for failing to equip public buildings with modern technology.
  • Hospital ICUs (intensive care units) are a great fire risk because they are oxygen-suffused, and need to meet high standards.





Although in December 2020, the Supreme court directed all States to carry out fire safety audits of dedicated Covid-19 hospitals, it has become evident that State forces lack the manpower to inspect and ensure compliance with safety codes, including the NBC, where it is mandatory. Therefore one option is to make heavy fire liability insurance compulsory for all public buildings, which would offer protection to occupants and visitors and bring about external inspection of safety.


Through conscious planning, the government has to strengthen and upgrade the Fire services in India. To achieve this facet, a robust institutional mechanism and coordinated approach including all concerned stakeholders is desired.



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