Goaltide Daily Current Afffairs 2023

Mar 07, 2023

Current Affair 1:




  • The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act was passed by the centre in 2016 and the related rules were notified in 2018.
  • The Act was enacted to manage the funds collected for compensatory afforestation, which till then was managed by ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
  • ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
  • A temporary structure of CAMPA functioning on the orders of the Supreme Court. In 2002, the Supreme Court of India observed that collected funds for afforestation were under-utilized by the states and it directed that an ad hoc CAMPA” consisting of three officials and one representative of the Central Empowered Committee be set up till the final one is created.





Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority


  • According to the Acts provision, a company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation.
    • For afforestation, the company should pay to plant new trees in the alternative land provided to the state.
    • The loss of forest ecosystem must also be compensated by paying for net present value (NPV).
  • In 2002, the Supreme Court had observed that collected funds for afforestation were under-utilized by the states and it ordered for centrally pooling of funds under ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund.
    • The court had set up the ad hoc National Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) to manage the fund.
    • In 2009, states had also set up state CAMPAs that received 10 percent of funds from the national CAMPA to use for afforestation and forest conservation.





State CAMPA Guidelines

  • Currently, the State CAMPA would receive funds collected from user agencies for compensatory afforestation, additional compensatory afforestation, penal compensatory afforestation, Net Present Value (NPV), and all other amounts recovered from such agencies under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, and currently held by the Adhoc CAMPA.
  • The State CAMPA would administer the funds received from the Adhoc CAMPA and use them for compensatory afforestation, assisted natural regeneration, forest conservation and protection, infrastructure development, wildlife conservation and protection, and other related activities, as well as matters connected with or incidental to those activities.
  • State CAMPA would provide an integrated framework for utilising multiple sources of funding and activities related to forest and wildlife protection and management.
  • Its primary task would be to regenerate natural forests and to strengthen the institution engaged in this work within the State Forest Department, including training of forest officials at various levels, with a focus on training staff at the cutting edge (forest range level).
  • In a nutshell, the department would be modernised in order to protect and regenerate forests and wildlife habitat.

Current Affair 2:
Scrub typhus.



Recent studies reported that combination therapy can save more lives in Scrub typhus.

What is scrub typhus?

  • Scrub typhus or Bush typhus is a bacterial disease caused by the bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi.
  • The disease spreads through bites of Larval mites of the trombiculid family, which are also known as Chiggers.
  • The mites typically breed in July-March and require a blood meal only during the larval stage which is usually acquired from rodents.
  • It typically occurred in the rural areas of Southeast Asia, Indonesia, China, Japan, India and northern Australia.
  • People affected by the life-threatening disease display symptoms such as fever, headaches, rashes and body aches.
  • In complicated cases, this vector-borne disease may cause pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute renal failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It also affects the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, renal system, and gastrointestinal system.


Combinational therapy

  • A random trial conducted in seven centres in India has shown that patients who received a combination of the two drugs resolved disease-related complications quicker than patients who received either one.
  • The trial consisted of 800 patients of which 265 were administered doxycycline, 263 azithromycin, and 266 combination therapy.
  • The 28-day mortality rate was 12.1% in all three groups under the trial, but the quicker resolution of complications could potentially save thousands of lives.
  • Patients in the combinational group also showed lower renal, respiratory, hepatic and central nervous system complications but researchers have claimed that a larger number of patients was required to conclusively prove if lives could be saved.
  • However, it would be unethical to continue the trial since the benefits of the combinational therapy had been clearly established.
  • The study also showed that patients with multiple organ dysfunction who arrived late have a higher risk of mortality and treatment may not be effective. 50% of the patients who died during the study, died within 48 hours of arrival.
  • The researchers believed that the reduced complications would prove especially beneficial in underdeveloped regions where scrub typhus was endemic and advanced support care was limited.
  • Although doxycycline was routinely administered as a monotherapy for scrub typhus patients, it had to be done so intravenously in severe patients.
  • Azithromycin was widely available in its intravenous formulation, making the combination therapy an attractive option.
  • The combination therapy was able to achieve faster clearance of the bacteria compared to monotherapies due to the complementary effect of the drugs.
  • The concentration of azithromycin was 100 times greater inside the cell where the bacteria were present than in the plasma, where the concentration of doxycycline was greater.
  • The complementary mechanism of the two drugs which prevent the bacteria from producing proteins at two different sites was considered the main reason for the quicker bacterial clearance.

Current Affair 3:
One Nation One Challan


The Gujarat government recently told the High Court, that it was in the process of setting up virtual traffic courts in the state under the One Nation One Challaninitiative.

What is the One Nation, One Challan initiative?

  • One Nation, One Challan is an initiative of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
  • It aims to bring all related agencies, such as the traffic police and the Regional Transport Office (RTO), on one platform, to enable seamless collection of challans as well as data transfer.
  • The integrated system uses the CCTV network to detect traffic violations and retrieve the registration number of the offending vehicle from applications like VAHAN and SARATHI.
  • An e-Challan is then generated with the relevant penalty amount, and sent to the mobile number linked with the vehicle.


How does it work?

  • So far,  to penalise someone from a different state using the CCTV network, we were unable to find details of the vehicle ownership, as the database was not integrated.
  • Now, with the integration of all the statesRTO data and traffic police data with the support of National Informatics Centre (NIC) servers, if someone coming from other state is captured violating traffic regulations on CCTV, the vehicles registration number and its related data can be accessed by the Ahmedabad police, and the challan will be sent directly to the mobile number mentioned at the time of the vehicles registration.
  • Also, e-challans so far are delivered through mobile phone SMSes, or through post when the phone number is not available. But now, the NIC is set to launch its own application for this.
  • If someone doesnt pay the challan amount within 90 days, the challan will be automatically forwarded to a virtual court and proceedings will be initiated. 
  • Summons will be sent on the mobile phone of the offender. If the fine is still not paid, further legal proceedings will follow.
  • Virtual courts are aimed at eliminating the presence of litigants in the court. An accused can search their case on the virtual courts website. Upon successful payment of fine, the case will be shown as disposed of.
  • For now, one court is in the process of being designated as a virtual court for the whole of Gujarat — court number 16 of Ahmedabad city sessions court, which will deal dedicatedly with the One Nation, One Challancases. 
  • Gradually, more jurisdictional courts may be added.



Current Affair 4:
mugger crocodile



According to a recent study, anthropogenic threats like illegal fishing and sand mining pose a threat to the mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus plaustris) of the Rapti river.

Mugger crocodiles

    • Mainly restricted to the Indian subcontinent where it may be found in a number of freshwater habitat types and also in coastal saltwater lagoons and estuaries. 
    • It is already extinct in Bhutan and Myanmar.
  • Threats:
    • Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and transformation, fishing activities and use of crocodile parts for medicinal purposes.
  • Protection Status:


  • The Gharial or fish eating crocodile is native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • It is listed as Critically Endangered by IUCN.
  • Small released populations are present and increasing in the rivers of the National Chambal Sanctuary, Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Son River Sanctuary and the rainforest biome of Mahanadi in Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary, Orissa.
  • The Gharial is found in only some rivers of India which include:
    • Chambal
    • Girwa
    • Ganges
    • Yamuna
    • Kali
    • Kosi
    • Gandak





Saltwater Crocodile

  • It is the largest of all living reptiles.
  • It listed as least concern by IUCN.
  • It is found throughout the east coast of India.
  • Odisha is the only State in India having all three species gharial, mugger and saltwater crocodile.
  • The State forest department began conservation of these crocodile species in 1975 by establishing three rearing centres Tikarpada for gharials in Angul district, Ramatirtha for muggers in Mayurbhanj and Bhitarkanika for saltwater crocodiles in Kendrapara district.


Rapti River


The West Rapti River is a tributary of the Ghaghara River, both of which have their origins in Nepal. The Rapti Zone, located about 200 kilometers west of the Nepalese capital city of Kathmandu, is home to the West Rapti River.

  • This river rises in the middle hills of Nepal, flowing initially through the Deukhuri valley and then taking a southeastern route into India. In India, the West Rapti River flows through the districts of Shravasti, Siddharth Nagar, Basti, Sant Kabir Nagar, and Gorakhpur before merging with the Ghaghara River at a place called Rajpur.
  • From there, the Ghaghara River flows another 120 kilometers before joining the Ganga River in the Bihar state.





Origin and Journey

  • The West Rapti River originates at a summit in the Western Himalayas and the Mahabharat range of mountains, at an elevation of 3,500 meters. Water flowing from the southern side of this summit eventually becomes the West Rapti River. As the river makes its way through Nepal, it passes through diverse terrains such as highlands, gorges, and valleys. Along the way, it is joined by several smaller rivers, including the Madi Khola, Lungri Khola, Amrukh Khola, Jhimruk Khola, and Mardi Khola, all of which merge with the West Rapti in Nepal.
  • Another tributary of the West Rapti River is the Rohini, which also originates in Nepal but flows separately into India before becoming a left bank tributary of the West Rapti and merging with it near the city of Gorakhpur.


Current Affair 5:
Di-Ammonia Phosphate (DAP)


Centre has recently notified nano Di-Ammonia Phosphate (DAP) in the Fertilizer Control Order, allowing its commercial release for farmers.

What is Diammonium Phosphate DAP?

  • DAP is the second most commonly used fertiliser in India after urea.
  • Farmers normally apply this fertiliser just before or at the beginning of sowing, as it is high in phosphorus (P) that stimulates root development.
  • DAP (46% P, 18% Nitrogen) is the preferred source of Phosphorus for farmers. This is similar to urea, which is their preferred nitrogenous fertiliser containing 46% N.

What are the Initiatives taken to Resolve DAP Dependency?

Encourage joint ventures abroad:

    • Indias leading phosphatic fertilizer player formalized the acquisition of a 45% equity share in Baobab Mining and Chemicals Corporation (BMCC), a rock phosphate mining company based in Senegal. 
      • Further, the mining will be done in Senegal, and production of DAP will be done in India
    • The government of India has been partnering with the industry to enable such investments to achieve supply security goals for meeting the countrys fertilizer needs.
    • Explore potential potassic ore resources Domestically:
    • The Department of Mining and Geological Survey planned to expedite exploration of potential potassic ore resources in Rajasthans Satpura, Bharusari, and Lakhasar, and other states including Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka.

NPK ratio:

  • The aim of Nutrient Based Subsidy Policy is to increase the consumption of P & K fertilizers so that an optimum balance of N:P:K = 4:2:1 can be achieved.
  • There are 6 macro nutrients that are needed for well balanced growth of crops. These are –
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Calcium (A)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Sulphur (S)
  • Nitrogenous fertilizers consist of Urea, Ammonium Nitrate, and Ammonium Sulphate.
  • Potassic fertilizers consist of Potassium Nitrate, Chile Sulphate.
  • Phosphatic fertilizers consist of Super Phosphate, Triple Phosphate.
  • NPK ratio of 4:2:1 improves soil health and increase the yield of crops, resulting in enhanced income for the farmers.


Major types of fertilizers:

1. Neem Coated Urea: Urea is sprayed with neem oil for nitrification and inhibition properties.

  • The coating of neem shows down the process of release of nitrogen from urea and there is an increase in nitrogen use efficiency.
  • Neem Coate Urea increases the yield of paddy, sugarcane, maize, soybean, tur/Red gram.
  • Urea has very high N and K content of 46% and 60% respectively which helps in improving soil health and growth of crops.

2. Primary fertilizers includes Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potansium –

  • Nitrogenous – Urea
  • Phosphatic – Di-ammonium Phosphate
  • Potassic – Muriate of Potash (MoP) fertilizers.

3. Secondary fertilizers include Calcium, Magnesium and Sulphur.

  • 4. Some micronutrients include – Zinc, Iron, Boron, Chloride etc.


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