Current Affairs for 2024 batch starts today

May 01, 2023

Current Affair 1:
India-UAE Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)


It’s in news because: 1st Anniversary of India-UAE CEPA implementation today.

During the past one year, CEPA has made a significant impact on India’s Bilateral Trade with the UAE and particularly India’s Exports to the UAE (Oil and Non-Oil). The Bilateral Trade between India and the UAE has touched historic highs during FY 2022-23. Trade has increased from US$ 72.9 billion (Apr 21-Mar 2022) to US$ 84.5 billion (Apr 22-Mar 2023) registering a year-on-year increase of 16%. During the CEPA Implementation period (from May 22 to Mar 23), bilateral trade increased from US$ 67.5 billion (May 21-Mar 2022) to US$ 76.9 billion (May 22-Mar 2023) – an annual increase of 14%.

Now, some important concepts. Do read.

The entire explanation below is from Ministry of Commerce website.

What is the difference between the terms such as PTA, CECA, CEPA?

Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA): In a PTA, two or more partners agree to reduce tariffs on agreed number of tariff lines. The list of products on which the partners agree to reduce duty is called positive list. India MERCOSUR PTA is such an example. However, in general PTAs do not cover substantially all trade

Free Trade Agreement (FTA):

In FTAs, tariffs on items covering substantial bilateral trade are eliminated between the partner countries; however, each maintains individual tariff structure for non-members. India Sri Lanka FTA is an example.

The key difference between an FTA and a PTA is that while in a PTA there is a positive list of products on which duty is to be reduced; in an FTA there is a negative list on which duty is not reduced or eliminated. Thus, compared to a PTA, FTAs are generally more ambitious in coverage of tariff lines (products) on which duty is to be reduced.

Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) and Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA):

These terms describe agreements which consist of an integrated package on goods, services and investment along with other areas including IPR, competition etc. The India UAE CEPA is one such example and it covers a broad range of other areas like trade facilitation and customs cooperation, investment, competition, IPR etc.

How is CECA/CEPA different from FTA?

A Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) or a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) is different from a traditional Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on two counts.

India has signed CEPA/CECA with other countries as well. Go through this link:

Current Affair 2:
Asian Development Bank (ADB)


First see the origin of the bank:

A major landmark was the establishment in 1974 of the Asian Development Fund to provide low-interest loans to ADB's poorest members.

In 1995, ADB became the first multilateral organization to have a Board-approved governance policy to ensure that development assistance fully benefits the poor. Policies on involuntary resettlement and indigenous peoples were also put in place.


From 31 members at its establishment in 1966, ADB has grown to encompass 68 members—of which 49 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.

India is a member since 1966.

Something more:

How is voting rights for members? Equal ni h. It all depends on capital share.

See top 5 countries below:


Current Affair 3:
START Programme of ISRO





ISRO has launched a new introductory-level online training programme called ‘Space Science and Technology Awareness Training (START)’ aimed at post-graduate and final-year undergraduate students of physical sciences and technology.

The programme will cover various domains of space science, including Astronomy & Astrophysics, Heliophysics & Sun-Earth interaction, Instrumentation, and Aeronomy. It will be delivered by the scientists from Indian academia and ISRO centres.

The START programme is part of ISRO's efforts to enable Indian students to become professionals in space science and technology, as the organization's space science exploration program continues to expand into new domains.

The programme is intended to provide students with an introductory-level training in space science and technology, giving them an overview of different facets of the field, research opportunities, and career options.


Current Affair 4:
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in Sundarban sediments


Bacteria found in the sediments of the Sunderban delta region can withstand antibiotics, a new study has shown.

The bacteria are developing antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) due to the constant dumping of waste and pollutants in the network of waterbodies. Researchers found bacteria such as Rhizobium, Marinobacter, Arthrobacter and Cycloclasticusn in the sample collected from five islands.

These bacteria are adept (meaning- very good) at degrading heavy pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). At least 42 ARGs were found at various levels in these bacteria where 17 resistance genes were enriched while 25 were depleted.

The study also found the diversity of ARGs in the mangrove region of Sunderbans and Kerala to be much higher than that of China.





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