Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2023

Aug 21, 2023

Current Affair 1:
Metagenome sequencing



Metagenomics is the study of the metagenome—the collective genome of microorganisms from an environmental sample—to provide information on the microbial diversity and ecology of a specific environment.

The traditional approach is to culture microorganisms and then extract the DNA, but 99% of the microorganisms in the environment cannot be cultured. Extracting high concentration and large fragment environmental microbial total DNA is the first and most critical step in building a metagenomic library. There are two key points to extracting metagenomic DNA. First, to extract all the genes of all microorganisms in the sample. Second, to keep the integrity and purity of the fragment.

Basic Steps of Metagenomics

Metagenomics is based on gene cloning. The basic procedure of metagenomics consists of the following steps.

  1. First, all genes in environmental microbial samples are extracted and enriched.
  2. Second, the genes are cloned into the vector, which is transformed into host bacteria to establish the metagenomic library.
  3. Finally, the metagenomic library is screened and analyzed. The extraction of metagenomic DNA and construction and screening of metagenomic library are essential.



Application Fields of Microorganism Metagenomics

Applications of environmental metagenomics include the study of microorganisms in oceans, soils, deep oceans, glaciers, craters, and other environments. Metagenomics also has many applications in the medical field, such as the identification of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract, bloodstream infections, lung infections, central nervous system infections, and other infections.

At present, metagenomic research focuses on antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistant genes, biocatalysts, drugs, and others.

Current Affair 2:
Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (IEPFA)


For administration of Investor Education and Protection Fund Government of India has on 7th September, 2016 established Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority under the provisions of section 125 of the Companies Act, 2013.

The Authority is entrusted with the responsibility of administration of the Investor Education Protection Fund (IEPF), make refunds of shares, unclaimed dividends, matured deposits/debentures etc. to investors and to promote awareness among investors.

Now Fund:

Current Affair 3:
Definition of Green Hydrogen


In a significant move for the progress of the National Green Hydrogen Mission, the government has notified the Green Hydrogen Standard for India.

The standard issued by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India outlines the emission thresholds that must be met in order for hydrogen produced to be classified as ‘Green’, i.e., from renewable sources.

The scope of the definition encompasses both electrolysis-based and biomass-based hydrogen production methods.

Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has decided to define Green Hydrogen as having a well-to-gate emission (i.e., including water treatment, electrolysis, gas purification, drying and compression of hydrogen) of not more than 2 kg CO2 equivalent / kg H2 (set an emission limit of two-kilogram carbon-dioxide for every kilogram of hydrogen produced).

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power shall be the Nodal Authority for accreditation of agencies for the monitoring, verification and certification for Green Hydrogen production projects.

With this notification, India becomes one of the first few countries in the world to announce a definition of Green Hydrogen.

Also see:


Also see SIGHT Programme:

Current Affair 4:
3D Printing Technology



3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a method of creating a three-dimensional object layer-by-layer using a computer created design.

3D printing is an additive process whereby layers of material are built up to create a 3D part. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing processes, where a final design is cut from a larger block of material. As a result, 3D printing creates less material wastage.

What Materials can be used in 3D Printing?

There are a variety of 3D printing materials, including thermoplastics such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), metals (including powders), resins and ceramics.

There are three broad types of 3D printing technology; sintering, melting, and stereolithography.

  1. Sintering is a technology where the material is heated, but not to the point of melting, to create high resolution items.
  2. Melting methods of 3D printing include powder bed fusion, electron beam melting and direct energy deposition, these use lasers, electric arcs or electron beams to print objects by melting the materials together at high temperatures.
  3. Stereolithography utilizes photopolymerization to create parts. This technology uses the correct light source to interact with the material in a selective manner to cure and solidify a cross section of the object in thin layers.

The advantages of 3D printing include:

  1. Cost-effective creation of complex geometries
  2. Affordable start-up costs: Since no moulds are required, the costs associated with this manufacturing process are relatively low. The cost of a part is directly related to the amount of material used, the time taken to build the part and any post processing that may be required.
  3. Completely customizable: Because the process is based upon computer aided designs (CAD), any product alterations are easy to make without impacting the manufacturing cost.
  4. Ideal for rapid prototyping: Because the technology allows for small batches and in-house production, this process is ideal for prototyping, which means that products can be created faster than with more traditional manufacturing techniques, and without the reliance on external supply chains.
  5. Allows for the creation of parts with specific properties: Although plastics and metals are the most common materials used in 3D printing, there is also scope for creating parts from specially tailored materials with desired properties. So, for example, parts can be created with high heat resistance, water repellency or higher strengths for specific applications.

The disadvantages of 3D printing include:

Can have a lower strength than with traditional manufacture:

While some parts, such as those made from metal, have excellent mechanical properties, many other 3D printed parts are more brittle than those created by traditional manufacturing techniques. This is because the parts are built up layer-by-layer, which reduces the strength by between 10 and 50%.

Increased cost at high volume:

Large production runs are more expensive with 3D printing as economies of scale do not impact this process as they do with other traditional methods.

Limitations in accuracy:

The accuracy of a printed part depends on the type of machine and/or process used. Some desktop printers have lower tolerances than other printers, meaning that the final parts may slightly differ from the designs. While this can be fixed with post-processing, it must be considered that 3D printed parts may not always be exact.

Post-processing requirements:

Most 3D printed parts require some form of post-processing. This may be sanding or smoothing to create a required finish, the removal of support struts which allow the materials to be built up into the designated shape, heat treatment to achieve specific material properties or final machining.

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