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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2020

Aug 17, 2020

Current Affair 1:
Ministry of Human Resource Development Renamed as Ministry of Education

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Ministry of Human Resource Development (Manav Sansadhan Vikas Mantralaya) has been renamed as Ministry of Education (Shiksha Mantralaya). The National Education Policy 2020 had stated that it is desirable to re-designate the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) as the Ministry of Education to 'bring the focus back on education and learning'.

Which of the Rules and constitutional provisions were used for this?

Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 has been amended to the above effect today. The President of India made the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Three Hundred and Fifty Sixth Amendment Rules, 2020 invoking his powers conferred by clause (3) of article 77 of the Constitution of India.

 

 

 

"IN THE FIRST SCHEDULE, for the heading ?18. Ministry of Human Resource Development (Manav Sansadhan Vikas Mantralaya, the heading ?18. Ministry of Education (Shiksha Mantralaya) shall be substituted.", the Rules read.

In fact, it was called Ministry of Education until 1985, when the then Government changed its name to HRD Ministry and made several associated Departments its part.

Learn about Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961:

  1. The Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 are made by the President of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business of the Government of India.
  2. The Ministries/Departments of the Government are created by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister under these Rules.
  3. The business of the Government is transacted in the Ministries/Departments, Secretariats and offices (referred to as 'Department') as per the distribution of subjects specified in these Rules.
  4. Each of the Ministries is assigned to a Minister by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Who responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961?

The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination, ironing out differences amongst Ministries/Departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing and ad hoc Committees of Secretaries.

Current Affair 2:
Decoding the Jammu & Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019

You will find this Act everyday in news whenever we talk about Kashmir, Border issues, etc. Its very important to know what changes this Act has brought. Many students are still not clear about it. So, today we will learn this. Important for this year and next year both.

The Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, has reduced the total number of States in India to 28 and increased the total number of Union Territories to 9 (excluding Daman and Dadar merger), thus, the First Schedule of the Constitution stands amended. The Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, has 14 Parts, 103 Sections, and 5 Schedules. The preamble of the Act states as follows: -

"An Act to provide for the reorganisation of the existing State of Jammu and Kashmir and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto."

Some background:

The Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, came into force with effect from 31st October 2019. The Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019, was passed by the Rajya Sabha on 5th August 2019, then by the Lok Sabha on 6th August 2019, and it received the assent of the President on 9th August 2019. The Act, primarily, bifurcated the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir into the Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. The Act was passed after the revocation of the Jammu & Kashmir's special status by way of the Constitution (Application to Jammu & Kashmir) Order, 2019.

Now important Changes: Vey important for Your Exam.

Common High Court and Bar Council for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union territory of Ladakh

  1. The High Court of Jammu and Kashmir is now the common High Court for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Union territory of Ladakh.
  2. The Judges of the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir for the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir became the Judges of the common High Court on the appointed day (31st October 2019).
  3. Justice Rajnesh Oswal became the first Judge to take the oath as a Judge of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court under the Indian Constitution. Previously, Judges were administered oath under the Jammu & Kashmir's Constitution, which has now been done away with.

Representation in the House of the People, Council of States, and Legislative Assembly for the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir

  1. Five seats have been allotted to Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and one seat to Union territory of Ladakh, in the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
  2. Four seats have been allotted to the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir in the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).
  3. The provisions of article 239A, applicable to Union territory of Puducherry are now applicable to the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  4. The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly (five years duration) of the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir shall be 107 which has to be increased to 114 through delimitation of the constituencies, to be determined by the Election Commission, and to be filled by persons chosen by direct elections.
  5. 24 seats shall remain vacant which represent the areas currently under the occupation of Pakistan.
  6. Seats have to be reserved for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Women (if women are not adequately represented in the Legislative Assembly).
  7. A person qualified to fill a seat in the Legislative Assembly has to be a citizen of India and not less than twenty-five years of age.
  8. The Lieutenant Governor has the power to prorogue the House and dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
  9. The Lieutenant Governor has discretion in matters related to All India Services, Anti-Corruption Bureau, and matters which fall outside the purview of the powers of the Legislative Assembly.
  10. Every Minister and the Advocate-General for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir shall have the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly.
  11. The Legislative Assembly has to choose two members of the Assembly to be the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Assembly.
  12. The Legislative Assembly has the power to make laws for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir for the matters mentioned in the State List or the Concurrent List except for the subjects - Public Order and Police.
  13. The Legislative Assembly shall also be having a separate secretariat staff and the Assembly has to regulate the recruitment and other conditions of service of the secretarial staff.
  14. The Lieutenant Governor shall also appoint an Advocate-General for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir who would give advice to the Government and perform duties of legal character.

Union territory of Ladakh without Legislature and Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir with Legislature

  1. The union territory of Ladakh will comprise Kargil and Leh districts, shall cease to form part of Jammu and Kashmir, and will not be having a legislature whereas the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will comprise the territories of the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir and will be having a legislature.
  2. Lieutenant Governors were appointed for the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, as per the provisions of the Act.
  3. Shri Manoj Sinha (recently appointed) and Shri Radha Krishna Mathur are the Lieutenant Governors of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh respectively.

Power of the Central Government to Adapt and Modify Laws

  1. The Central Government can make adaptations and modifications of the laws by way of repeal or amendment which may be necessary or expedient.
  2. The Act has repealed 164 Laws of the erstwhile State of Jammu & Kashmir and 106 Central Laws (Fifth Schedule of the Act) are applicable for the Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh, also, 166 State Laws would continue to be applicable.
  3. Laws such as the Code of Civil Procedure, the Code of Criminal Procedure, India Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, and numerous other laws are now applicable to the Union Territories of Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.

Official Language of the Assembly and the Strength of the Council of Ministers

  1. There has to be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor.
  2. The business in the Legislative Assembly of the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir has to be carried out in the official language of the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir or Hindi or English and the language to be used for Acts and Bills, has to be English.

Other Changes Brought by the Act

  1. In case of failure of constitutional machinery, the President of India, on receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor of Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, has the power to suspend the operation of the provisions of the Jammu & Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 and make incidental and consequential provisions which may be necessary for administering the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. The Public Service Commission of the erstwhile State of Jammu and Kashmir has become the Public Service Commission of the Union Territory of Jammu Kashmir and the Union Public Service Commission shall take care of the Union Territory of Ladakh.
  3. Contingency Fund, Public Account, and Consolidated Fund for the Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir have also been set up, as per the provisions of the Act.
  4. The Constitution Jammu and Kashmir (Scheduled Castes) Order, 1956 and the Constitution Jammu and Kashmir (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1989, shall continue to apply to the Union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
  5. The Administration of Jammu & Kashmir has notified the Jammu and Kashmir Grant of Domicile Certificate Procedure Rules, 2020, for issuance of domicile certificates
  6. The Centre had issued the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Adaptation of State Laws) Order 2020, under which it defined domicile as any person who has resided for 15 years in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir or has studied for seven years and appeared in class 10th/12th examination in an educational institution located in the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir.
  7. Over 4 lakh people in Jammu and Kashmir have been issued domicile certificates till date.

Current Affair 3:
Oumuamua

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Mystery still continues for Oumuamua. You won’t understand if we don’t explain the story from beginning. For space based related topics, don’t go in much deep. Just read the basic principle underlying the topic and agency associated if any. So, see Oumuamua now.

  1. For millions of years, different types of interstellar objects have been floating around in space. Space scientists have long-hypothesized the existence of such objects that aren’t bound to anyone star-system but lacked direct visual evidence.
  2. It was only in October 2017 that scientists were able to get the sight of the first interstellar object ‘Oumuamua’ during the journey into our Solar System.
  3. Since then, it is regarded as the first interstellar object to visit our solar system from a distant star. Hence, it is named as ‘Oumuamua’ which means —the first messenger coming from a far distance in Hawaii.
  4. Back then, in 2017, this visitor’s discovery came as a massive surprise for the space fraternity—as it was nothing like they ever imagined.
  5. Unlike the usual icy comets, which have familiar shapes, Oumuamua has an elongated shape, a cigar-like structure of about 400 metres, with a rocky surface.
  6. These unusual characteristics had intrigued many scientists. Moreover, several theories suspected Oumuamua as an ‘alien probe’— due to its unusual shape and non-gravitational movement. However, these claims were debunked soon.
  7. However, the mysteries around Oumuamua’s shape and origin prevailed. Explanation for such a shape was given below (sir you said we should not go in deep, why we are still learning this?) It is for students who want to read more. You can skip this.

 

Researchers had suggested earlier this year that the origins and molecular structure of Oumuamua could be explained by it being a hydrogen iceberg. Among other mysteries, that would help solve the question of how it was able to power itself through such distant space, since pure hydrogen gas would have been able to push it like a rocket. Recently this has been challenged again. Watch a small video.

Current Affair 4:
An Indian was the first to scientifically document a tornado’s path

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Babu ChunderSikur Chatterjee, an Indian scientist employed with the Surveyor General of India during the British colonial era, was likely the first person to scientifically document a tornado’s path in 1865, a study from the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, has claimed.

By carefully searching and analyzing papers about tornados, Saumyendu De and AK Sahai, scientists at IITM Pune, concluded that Chatterjee’s paper was the earliest record of a tornado’s dynamics in the history of meteorology.

Chatterjee had published his findings in a journal named Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in a paper titled ‘Note on a whirlwind at Pundooah’. The paper described a tornado’s dynamics in meticulous detail and was accompanied by a sketch that mathematically depicted its scale, track and rotation.

Chatterjee did it differently. He quantitatively mapped the entire trail of á tornado’s destruction. He benefited from the rare opportunity to observe a tornado passing through a railway track where there were conveniently placed markers at predefined locations like railway line mileposts and telegraph posts that enabled him to observe and make clear measurements of the tornado’s direction, dynamics and path.

A tornado appears as a strong whirlwind, which is a rapidly rotating column of air with a suction spot at its centre that is in contact with both the Earth’s surface and a thunderhead cloud. It is generally accompanied by extreme weather such as heavy downpours, hailstorms, and lightning.

The tornado documented by Chatterjee had occurred on May 5, 1865, at 18:00 hours in Pandua, located in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Pundooah is a railway station in the Pandua area of Hooghly.

Current Affair 5:
Seed Bombs: Solution to Man-Animal Conflict

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Odisha’s Athagarh Forest Division has started casting seed balls (or bombs) inside different reserve forest areas to enrich food stock for wild elephants. This has been done to prevent man-elephant conflict.

What are seed balls?

A seed bomb is a little ball generally made up of a combination of compost, clay and seeds. The compost and clay act as a carrier for the seeds so they can be launched over walls or fences and into inaccessible areas such as wasteland or railways. The compost offers nutrients for the seeds to germinate and grow strong during their infancy and the clay binds the seed bomb, making it hard enough not to break when it hits the ground.

See the data regarding elephant conflict:

Why they are planting seed balls?

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