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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Jul 27, 2022

Current Affair 1:
World Overshoot Day

 

Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year.

This year’s Earth Overshoot Day was observed July 28, a day before it was celebrated last year July 29 and nearly a month earlier than it was celebrated in 2020 August 22.

The day, hosted and calculated by Global Footprint Network, an international research organisation, falls earlier every year, to indicate that humanity’s demand for natural resources exceeds what the Earth can provide.

Try to understand how overshoot day is calculated, it is interesting.

We determine the country overshoot days in 2022 using the 2022 edition of the National Footprint and Biocapacity Accounts, which features Ecological Footprint and biocapacity data from 1961 to the latest data-year of 2018. Typically, there is a three to four-year lag between the latest data-year and the present due to the UN’s reporting process.

Let’s take Switzerland’s 2022 overshoot day, for example, using the 2022 edition (with data for 2018):

The Ecological Footprint for Switzerland is 4.35 gha per person (in 2018)

Global biocapacity is 1.6 gha per person (in 2018)

Therefore, it would take (4.35/ 1.6) = 2.75 Earths if everyone lived like the Swiss,

OR

we can determine Switzerland’s overshoot day as 365 * (1.6/4.35) = 133rd day in the year. The 133rd day of 2022 is the 13th of May, Switzerland’s Overshoot Day.

So, does every country has an overshoot day?

Not all countries will have an overshoot day. By way of the country overshoot equation above, a country will only have an overshoot day if their Ecological Footprint per person is greater than global biocapacity per person (1.6 gha). Countries whose Ecological Footprint per person are less than global biocapacity per person (1.6 gha) and do not have an overshoot day are listed as “none”.

About the Network:

Current Affair 2:
Hepatitis

 

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that is caused by a variety of infectious viruses  and non-infectious agents leading to a range of health problems, some of which can be fatal. There are five main strains of the hepatitis virus, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E.

While they all cause liver disease, they differ in important ways including modes of transmission, severity of the illness, geographical distribution and prevention methods. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and together are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and viral hepatitis-related deaths. An estimated 354 million people worldwide live with hepatitis B or C, and for most, testing and treatment remain beyond reach

Symptoms:

Many people with hepatitis A, B, C, D or E exhibit only mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Each form of the virus, however, can cause more severe symptoms.

  1. Symptoms of hepatitis A, B and C may include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes). In some cases, the virus can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis (a scarring of the liver) or liver cancer. These patients are at risk of death.
  2. Hepatitis D (HDV) is only found in people already infected with hepatitis B (HBV); however, the dual infection of HBV and HDV can cause a more serious infection and poorer health outcomes, including accelerated progression to cirrhosis. Development of chronic hepatitis D is rare.
  3. Hepatitis E (HEV) begins with mild fever, reduced appetite, nausea and vomiting lasting for a few days. Some persons may also have abdominal pain, itching (without skin lesions), skin rash or joint pain. They may also exhibit jaundice, with dark urine and pale stools, and a slightly enlarged, tender liver (hepatomegaly), or occasionally acute liver failure.

Treatment:

Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV). This vaccine also prevents the development of hepatitis D virus (HDV) and given at birth strongly reduces transmission risk from mother to child.

A vaccine also exists to prevent infections of hepatitis E (HEV), although it is not currently widely available.

Hepatitis C (HCV) can cause both acute and chronic infection. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. Antiviral medicines can cure more than 95% of persons with hepatitis C infection, thereby reducing the risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer, but access to diagnosis and treatment remains low.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is most common is low- and middle-income countries due to reduced access to clean and reliable water sources and the increased risk of contaminated food. A safe and effective vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis A.

Current Affair 3:
FDI in India in 2021-22

 

Read all points given below.

1) India received the highest annual FDI inflows of $ 85 billion in FY 21-22.

2) India is rapidly emerging as a preferred country for FDI in the manufacturing sector. FDI Equity inflow in Manufacturing Sectors have increased by 76% in FY 2021-22 ($ 21.34 billion) compared to previous FY 2020-21.

3) As per the UNCTAD World Investment Report (WIR) 2022, in its analysis of the global trends in FDI inflows, India has moved to 7th rank among the top 20 host economies for 2021.

4) FDI country wise: Singapore (27.01%) > USA (17.94%) > Mauritius (15.98%) > Netherland (7.86%) > Switzerland (7.31%)

5) Top 5 States receiving highest FDI Equity Inflow during FY 2021-22 are Karnataka (37.55%), Maharashtra (26.26%), Delhi (13.93%), Tamil Nadu (5.10%) and Haryana (4.76%)

6) Top 5 sectors receiving highest FDI Equity Inflow during FY 2021-22 are Computer Software & Hardware (24.60%), Services Sector (Fin., Banking, Insurance, Non-Fin/Business, Outsourcing, R&D, Courier, Tech. Testing and Analysis, Other) (12.13%), Automobile Industry (11.89%), Trading 7.72% and Construction (Infrastructure) Activities (5.52%).

It is to be noted that there is a difference between Gross FDI and net FDI. The FDI investors in India earn profit which they can take back to their home country or they can sell the investment as well in India and return to their home country. When this is subtracted from Gross FDI then we get Net FDI. Somewhere Gross FDI data is used and somewhere Net is used, so don't get confused. In 2021-22, Net FDI was around $55 billion.

Current Affair 4:
Termination of Session:

 

A sitting of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment or adjournment sine die or prorogation or dissolution (in the case of the Lok Sabha).

Adjournment: It suspends the work in a sitting for a specified time, which may be hours, days or weeks.

Adjournment sine die: It means terminating a sitting of Parliament for an indefinite period. In other words, when the House is adjourned without naming a day for reassembly.

The power of adjournment as well as adjournment sine die lies with the presiding officer (Speaker or Chairman) of the House.

Prorogation: The President issues a notification for prorogation of the session after the business of a session is completed and the presiding officer declares the House adjourned sine die. The President can also prorogue the House while in session.

Dissolution: Only the Lok Sabha is subject to dissolution. Rajya Sabha, being a permanent House, is not subject to dissolution. A dissolution ends the life of the existing House, and a new House is constituted after general elections are held.

The President is empowered to dissolve the Lok Sabha.

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