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Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2022

Sep 08, 2022

Current Affair 1:
Human Development Report 2021/2022

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The 2021/2022 Human Development Report is the latest in the series of global Human Development Reports published by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) since 1990.

We will talk about Human Developement Index.

According to the report, released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), India’s HDI value stood at 0.633 during 2021, which was lower than the world average of 0.732. In 2020, too, India recorded a decline in its HDI value (0.642) in comparison to the pre-Covid level of 2019 (0.645).

In a statement, the UNDP said: “India ranks 132 out of 191 countries and territories on the 2021/22 Human Development Index, tracking the global decline in human development.”

HDI is composite index that measures average achievement in human development taking into account four indicators: life expectancy at birth (Sustainable Development Goal 3); expected years of schooling (SDG 4.3); mean years of schooling (SDG 4.4); and gross national income (GNI) per capita (2017 PPP$) (SDG 8.5).

Current Affair 2:
Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)

News: 2nd Anniversary of Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) celebrated

The Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Government of India is implementing Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana – A scheme to bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of fisheries sector in India at an estimated investment of Rs. 20050 crores for holistic development of fisheries sector including welfare of fishers. PMMSY is being implemented in all the States and Union Territories for a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.

The main motto of PMMSY is ‘Reform, Perform and Transform’ in the fisheries sector.

 

 

Current Affair 3:
Difference between Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and biogas

Irrespective of technology, producing CBG from biomass involves a two-pronged approach.

  1. First, biogas is produced through anaerobic decomposition of biomass. Since biogas contains 55 to 60 per cent methane, 40 to 45 per cent carbon dioxide (CO2) and trace amounts of hydrogen sulphide,
  2. the second process involves purifying the gas to remove carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide gases to prepare CBG.

Thus chemically, CBG is the same as CNG — both are compressed methane — and has the same calorific value. The difference is that while CNG is a by-product of petroleum, CBG can be produced from any biomass, be it crop residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal wet waste or effluents from a sewage treatment plant.

This makes CBG a commercially viable option as it can be directly used to replace CNG in transportation fuel. Just like CNG, CBG too can be transported through cylinders or pipelines to retail outlets.

Given the abundance of biomass in the country, CBG has the potential to replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial uses. It can also be used directly in generator sets to produce clean power.

Other advantages of CBG:

The advantages of CBG do not end here. Its solid by-products can be used as bio-manure. Estimates under SATAT(Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation) initiative shows the 5,000 planned CBG plants will generate 50 million tonnes of bio-manure a year.

It is a rich source of silica that not only aids in the growth and yield of crops but also bestows immunity against many diseases and prevents toxic material uptake by plants such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and other heavy metals. It can thus help reduce the requirement of chemical fertilisers.

Bio-manure produced from paddy straw also has a high water retention capacity that helps reduce irrigation requirement.

The other by-product is CO2. It can be tapped while purifying the biogas and used to produce liquid or solid CO2, which have high demand for food preservation or to be used in fire extinguishers.

CBG and its by-products hold the chance for a circular economic growth.

Current Affair 4:
Difference Between 'Parole' and 'Furlough'

The Supreme Court has discussed the differences between 'furlough' and 'parole' and the principles relating to grant of them.

A bench comprising Justice DY Chandrachud and Justice BV Nagarathna stated the broad principles as :

  1. Furlough and parole envisage a short-term temporary release from custody;
  2. While parole is granted for the prisoner to meet a specific exigency, furlough may be granted after a stipulated number of years have been served without any reason;
  3. The grant of furlough is to break the monotony of imprisonment and to enable the convict to maintain continuity with family life and integration with society;
  4. Although furlough can be claimed without a reason, the prisoner does not have an absolute legal right to claim furlough;
  5. The grant of furlough must be balanced against the public interest and can be refused to certain categories of prisoners.

Furlough not a matter of right

Referring to the provisions of the Bombay Furlough and Parole Rules, the bench noted that the Rules do not confer a legal right on a prisoner to be released on furlough. The grant of furlough is regulated by Rule 3 and Rule 4. While Rule 3 provides the eligibility criteria for grant of furlough for prisoners serving different lengths of imprisonment, Rule 4 imposes limitations. The use of the expression "may be released" in Rule 3 indicates the absence of an absolute right. This is further emphasized in Rule 17 which states that said Rules do not confer a legal right on a prisoner to claim release on furlough.

Referring to various precedents, the bench also observed that balance needs to be maintained between two competing interests while granting parole or furlough- that of reforming the convict on one hand and the public purpose and interests of society on the other.

 

 

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