Goaltide Daily Current Affairs 2023

Feb 07, 2023

Current Affair 1:
Hydropower generation




Unlike coal  powered power plants, hydro power, which is the second highest power producing source at 13%, is a significant contributor to clean global electricity generation. Based on observations and climate projections, a two member team from IIT Gandhinagar studied the hydroclimatic changes in the catchment areas and their implications for hydropower generation in 46 major dams located in north, central and south India.


What Are Hydro-power Projects?

Hydro-power projects are based on the concept of using water to generate electricity. In a hydropower project, water is collected in a reservoir and then released through turbines to generate electricity.

Hydro-power projects can be small or large scale. Small scale hydro-power projects are typically used to power homes or businesses in remote areas. Large scale hydropower projects are generally


 used to provide electricity to entire communities or regions.


India is 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity. As of 31 March 2020, India's installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 46,000 MW, or 12.3% of its total utility power generation capacity. Additional smaller hydroelectric power units with a total capacity of 4,683 MW (1.3% of its total utility power generation capacity) have been installed. India's hydroelectric power potential is estimated at 148,700 MW

Types of hydro power stations

There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundments, diversion, and pumped storage some hydropower plants use dams and some do not.

    • Impoundment: The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. An impoundment facility, typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity.
    • Diversion: A diversion, sometimes called a run-of-river facility, channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock and then flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. It may not require the use of a dam.
    • Pumped storage: It works like a battery, storing the electricity generated by other power sources like solar, wind, and nuclear for later use. When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back to the lower reservoir and turns into a turbine, generating electricity.

Current Affair 2:



Geologists at Jadavpur University have found that they can get a preliminary sense of the pollution in an area by collect ing roadside dust and testing it with magnetic fields. The technique reveals the presence of different magnetic elements, and by tracing them back to specific sources of pollution.


environmental magnetism — which is magnetism as it depicts the impact of climate change, pollution and environmental footprints on magnetic minerals present in environmental samples such as soil, dust and sediments.

It makes use of techniques from rock magnetism and magnetic mineralogy. The magnetic properties of minerals are used as proxies for environmental change in applications such as paleoclimate, paleoceanography, studies of the provenance of sediments, pollution and archeology. The main advantages of using magnetic measurements are that magnetic. The frequency of pollutants is higher in areas with heavy vehicular traffic and other polluting sources. The amount of magnetite is proportional to the traffic on a given road.


Magnetite pollution refers to the presence of a magnetic mineral called Magnetite (Fe3O4) in the environment, as a result of human activities such as mining, steel production and industrial processes. Magnetite is an oxide of iron. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on earth. It is a natural magnet. Magnetite contains about 72% metallic iron in it. It is found in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Kerala.




Magnetite particles can act as pollutants and led to neurodegenerative problems. Magnetic particles can penetrate and damage the blood-brain-barrier and led to the early development of Alzheimers disease. 

Current Affair 3:





The Union Budget for 202324 announced an initiative for mangrove plantation along the coastline and on salt pan lands, under MISHTI (Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes).

How do mangroves help?

Mangroves are salt tolerant plant communities found in tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are important refuges of coastal biodiversity and also act as bioshields against extreme climatic events. With the threat of climate change and frequent tropical storms looming large, planting more mangroves is a welcome development for India which has a coastline of about 7,500 km.

Where do mangroves grow in India?

The State of World Mangroves 2022report by the Global Mangrove Alliance puts the total mangrove cover of the world at 1,47,000 sq km (14.7 million hectares). India has about 4,992 sq km (0.49 million hectares) of mangroves, according to the Indian State of Forest Report (IFSR) 2021. Mangroves in India are distributed across nine States and three Union Territories with West Bengal having the highest mangrove cover of 2,114 sq km. The IFSR report also points out that there has been an increase in the mangrove cover from 4,046 sq km in 1987 to 4,992 sq km in 2021. However, like most other countries, in India too the mangrove ecosystem faces constant pressure due to increasing population in coastal

areas and the rising demand for land, timber, fodder, fuelwood and other non wood forest products like fisheries. The tree species that form a mangrove forest or ecosystem are broadly classified as true mangroves and mangroves associates. True mangroves are the ones which display morphological adaptations for a high saline mangrove ecosystem such as pneumatophores, vivipary or crypto vivipary germination and salt secreting cells. Botanists put the number of true mangrove species in India at about 42 and mangrove associates at 68. A stable and resilient mangrove ecosystem requires a number of species to exist side by side.





What is the ecosystem of these forests?

Mangrove forests are formed when there is intertidal flow and where adequate sediments are available for the trees to set down roots. Experts say aquaculture or fisheries along the coast obstructing tidal flow is one of the biggest threats to the mangrove ecosystem. In the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the country, several instances of clearing mangroves for fisheries have come to light. Along the countrys coastline, land reclamation for agriculture, aquaculture and industrial activities have occurred in areas which are under the Coastal Regulation Zone. Restoration of the land and allowing intertidal flow is crucial for plantation and survival of mangrove forests.

Which agency will be responsible for it?

The Budget states that MISHTI will be implemented through convergence between the MGNREGS (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme), CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority) Fund and other sources. Organisations that have been involved in mangrove plantation say that the initiative requires extensive work with local communities. The survival rate of mangrove seed plantation is 50% and of saplings is about 60% and it takes three years for a new plant to stabilise. A contract based onetime plantation under MGNREGS and CAMPA may not work unless the local communities take ownership of the forests. Discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents into the rivers impede the natural intertidal flow along the coast and the mixing of freshwater and saline water which help in gradual formation of the mangrove forest.

Why is it crucial for fighting climate change?

The State of World Mangroves 2022points out that mangroves are estimated to hold up to four times the amount of carbon as some other ecosystems. The loss of even 1% of remaining mangroves could lead to the loss of 0.23 gigatons of CO2 equivalent, equating to over 520 million barrels of oil,” the report states.

India joined the Mangrove Alliance for Climate, at the 27th session of the Conference of the Parties in Egypt.

Current Affair 4:
schedule 5 ( special status to states)


The engineer turned innovator Sonam Wangchuk is demanding special status for Ladakh and seeking to draw the Centres special attention to its climate problem.


The Fifth Schedule designates tribal majority areas in ten tribal minority states within peninsular India including, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Rajasthan.


In the Article 244(1) of the Constitution, expression Scheduled Areas means such areas as the President may by order declare to be Scheduled Areas.


The president by order can -


Direct that the whole or any specified part of a Scheduled Area shall cease to be a Scheduled Area or a part of such an area. increase the area of any Scheduled Area in a State after consultation with the Governor of that State. alter, but only by way of rectification of boundaries, any Scheduled Area. on any alteration of the boundaries of a State on the admission into the Union or the establishment of a new State, declare any territory not previously included in any State to be, or to form part of, a Scheduled Area. rescind, in relation to any State of States, any order or orders made under these provisions and in consultation with the Governor of the State concerned, make fresh orders redefining the areas which are to be Scheduled Areas.





Criteria For Declaring Schedule Areas -

The criteria for declaring an area as Scheduled Area are as follows:

  • a preponderance of tribal population;
  • compactness and reasonable size of the area;
  • under-developed nature of the area; and
  • the marked disparity in the economic standard of the people.


Tribal advisory council


  • It consists of 20 members , 3/4th of whom are to be representatives of ST in STATE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
  • A similar council can also be established in States having STs but not SAs therein, if the President so directs.
  • If the no. of representatives of STs in STATE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY < no. of seats in TAC to be filled by such representatives, then the remaining seats shall be filled by members of those tribes. Governor may make rules on appointment of Ch. Members etc.



Current Affair 5:
Electric vehicle



Electric Vehicles (EVs)

An EV operates on an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine and has a battery instead of a fuel tank.In general, EVs have low running costs as they have fewer moving parts and are also environmentally friendly.




Advantages of Electrical vehicle




Electric Vehicles – Environmental Advantages

Electric cars (or electric vehicles, EVs) have several environmental benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine cars. Reduce dependence on petroleumHave the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Reduce health effects from air pollution. Reduce dependence on petroleum. They produce little or no tailpipe emissions.

Electrical Vehicles – Better Energy Efficiency.

 Internal Combustion engines will consume fuel even when the vehicle is stationary, whereas in electrical vehicles, the energy is not consumed when it is stationary. Electrical Vehicles tank-to-wheelsefficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal combustion engine vehicles

Electric Vehicles – Mechanical Advantages

They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. Hence it removes the requirement for gearboxes and torque converters. Lesser vibration. Lesser noise. Electric motors are mechanically very simple and often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled.




Bottlenecks And Challenges in Electric vehicles?

How are cost structures of conventional vehicles and electric vehicles different? Are EV vehicles completely environment-friendly? Do not push EVs as the Only Measure. Other solutions available.Other loopholes in electric vehicles.

Government Initiatives

      • National Electric Mobility Mission: 2020
      • Supreme Court On NEMMP
      • Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric vehicles(FAME) 1 
      • FAME II
      • National Mission on Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage
      • Phased Manufacturing Programme
      • Union Budget 2019-20 On Electric Vehicles
      • Power ministry has revised guidelines for setting up charging infra for EVs
      • MOVE: Global Mobility Summit

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